Factors Affecting Productivity in a Spinning Mill | Factors for Production in Textile Spinning Mill

Factors for Production in Spinning Mill
In every factory, production efficiency defends on some factors or parameters. As like as other factory, production of Spinning mill defends on some factors. The factors which influence the production of spinning mill are mentioned below: 
Spinning mill
Fig: Spinning mill (ring frame section)
1. Raw material
2. Labour
3. Machinery
  • Ends down
  •  Doffs
  • Creeling
  • Bobbin size
4. Maintenance
5. Energy issue

Raw Material
Raw material has an important impact on yarn quality and production. Let’s see how it affects on yarn production? There are many parameters through which we can easily assess the properties of cotton; first one is the fiber length which is the most important characteristic of cotton and is measured in terms of staple length, span length and effective length. If fibers have good staple length it results in the form of high production because less twist per inch is required to give enough strength. Second one is the short fibers percentage; higher percentage of short fibers will result in the form of production losses due to more end breakage and higher twist per inch. Third one is the fiber maturity, in case of immature fibers it results in the form of production loss because the yarn made from these types of fibers have poor strength and also it produces breakage in spinning department. Fourth one is the fiber strength which is the dominating feature of fiber. When fiber strength is higher it outcomes in the form of high production due to less twist multiplier. I think while choosing cotton we have to keep in mind all these factors otherwise it results in the form of great loss.

In all industries, the importance of labour cannot be denied. But in the textile sector specially in spinning mills labour plays a very crucial role because without their participation nothing could be done. For example if we take the example of the ring department in a spinning mill or you can say the production department, 400 workers are working in one shift and with their negligence it 28 results in the form of production loss. In the ring department we can calculate production in bags /day, so, with the workers carelessness it results in the form of loss of bags. In Bangladesh working in mills exists in three shifts so, the question does arise why production is different in these three shifts if they have the same number of workers? Due to workers inattention the rate of production is different because in textile mill they face different types of problems every day so, to overcome these problems they have made a reward system in the form of cash prizes. By comparing the production of these three shifts. They decided which shift deserves for that prize. By adopting this system they can control this problem up to some extent. From our point of view we think that the proper way to improve productivity in textile mills is first to take those workers which are properly skilled secondly, with the passage of time arrange training sessions for their improvement and the most important thing is to increase their wages time after time. By adopting these things productivity can be improved.

Machinery is the back bone of every industry. In the textile industry machine are working 24 hours so it is important that its efficiency would be excellent. Let’s look at the comparison between the old and new machine. In Spinning Mills we analyzed that, “why new machine are better than old machine?” In the simplex department they have erected 10 frames and in which one of them is the old one. If we compare the old machine with the new machine in production point of view then, it is clear that new machines are better than old ones. We got some experimental results, from the new frame with the speed of 725 rpm the production is 45 bags/day while with the old machine with the same speed production is 35 bags /days because many factors involved in it like sliver and roving breakages, machine adjustments and stoppages. If we compare these machines in energy point of view then old machine consumes more energy than the new ones. From the above discussion it is clear that the machine matters if we talk about productivity.

While analyzing in Ring Department, during working stoppages may occur due to the following reasons.
  • Ends down
  • Doffs
  • Creeling
  • Bobbin size
These factors affect the productivity to a great extent. If we control these stoppages then production can be increased and it also has an impact on yarn quality which is improved under the same conditions of cost and labour charges.

Ends Down
The end down is due to the less strength of yarn and greater spindle speed. Adding to stops, no. of spindles per frame, lift of bobbin rail and cleanliness of the department also affects the production. More number of spindles on a frame increases its efficiency. Cleanliness means no fibrous mass is floating in atmosphere of ring otherwise ends down rate will be increased.

Doffing means removal of full size package and replacing it with the empty one. During doffing, the machine is stopped and it is carried out by skilled workers. For coarse count like 7s, 10s etc, doff time is less and for finer count like 30s, 40s etc, time is more. For 20S it takes 90-110 min for complete doff. During doffing, it should be kept in mind that it should be carried out in the shortest possible time.

The changing of the roving bobbin when it is empty and to replace it by a new full roving bobbin is called creeling. Creeling time should be as small as possible.

Bobbin Size
The production can be increased by increasing the bobbin size because with a bigger bobbin less doff is required per shift. The Bobbin size depends on ring dia, but as we increase the ring dia, ends down rate also increases so it also has a limit. Usually 42 mm ring dia is available on which 40 mm dia bobbin can be prepared.

Proper maintenance of machine is necessary otherwise it results in the form of many problems like sudden shut downs and big production loss. In ATM maintenance is done on daily basis to overcome the problems which they are facing every day. Usually in ATM one machine is opened 30 in every department for maintenance. Proper maintenance results in the form of efficient working of machine and good outputs. For example by proper maintenance and by proper preparation of roving it results in the form of minimizing the end breakage rate.

Energy Issue
Energy is the basic requirement of any industry but now a days in Bangladesh it’s a big issue right now that’s why the textile industry is suffering from many problems. Now take a look and discuss what kind of problems they are facing and how they create hurdles for productivity? Bangladesh industry is mainly running on these two resources i.e. gas and electricity. But due to shortage of these necessities many textile units are shutting down. Sometimes due to sudden failures machine parts are being destructed. The second and most important problem that arises is that the products are not being prepared in time for delivery which causes customer and production loss as the products are not being produced on time. For instance if one spinning mill has a production of 300 bags/ day due to shut down of 2 hours, its production is going to decrease by 275bags/day.
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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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