Fabric Faults | Causes of Woven Fabrics Defects or Faults

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Fabric Faults
Fabric faults are responsible for major defects found by the garment industry. Due to the increasing demand for quality fabrics, high quality requirements are today greater since customer has become more aware of “Non-quality” problems. In order to avoid fabric rejection, mills have to produce fabrics of high quality, constantly. Often inspectors are given the responsibility of inspecting finished garments without adequate training in fabric defects and their causes. The ultimate solution, of course, is to provide actual examples or photographs of both major and minor defects.

Woven fabric
Names of Woven Fabrics Defects or Faults:
  1. Bad Selvedge
  2. Burl Mark
  3. Drawbacks
  4. Dropped Pick
  5. End Out
  6. Jerk-in
  7. Knots
  8. Mixed End (Yarn)
  9. Mixed Filling
  10. Open Reed
  11. Slub
  12. Smash
  13. Soiled Filling or End
  14. Stop Mark
  15. Thin Place 
  16. Holes 
  17. Drop Stitches
  18. Loop Distortion
1. Bad Selvedge
Causes: A defect in a fabric because of faulty weaving, warp ends being set too far apart for the thickness of the yarn or in finished fabric, an appearance in which the underlying structures is not connected to the degree required.

2. Burl Mark
Causes: When a slub or extra piece of yarn is woven into the fabric, it is often removed by a "burling tool." This will usually leave an open place in the fabric.

3. Drawbacks
Causes: Caused by excessive loom tension gradually applied by some abnormal restriction. When the restriction is removed the excess slack is woven into the fabric. Usually the ends are broken.

4. Dropped Pick
Causes: Caused by the filling insertion mechanism on a shuttleless loom not holding the filling yarn, causing the filling yarn to be woven without tension. The filling yarn appears as "kinky." There will also be areas of "end out."

5. End Out
Causes: Caused by yarn breaking and loom continuing to run with missing end.

6. Jerk-in
Causes: Caused by an extra piece of filling yarn being jerked part way into the fabric by the shuttle. The defect will appear at the selvage.

7. Knots
Causes: Caused by tying spools of yarn together.

8. Mixed End (Yarn)
Causes: Yarn of a different fiber blend used on the wrap frame, resulting in a streak in the fabric.

9. Mixed Filling
Causes: Caused by bobbin of lightweight yarn or different fiber blend used in filling. Will appear as a distinct shade change.

10. Open Reed
Causes: Results from a bent reed wire causing wrap ends to be held apart, exposing the filling yarn. Will be conspicuous on fabrics that use different colored yarns on wrap and shuttle.

11. Slub
Causes: Usually caused by an extra piece of yarn that is woven into fabric. It can also be caused by thick places in the yarn. Often is caused by fly waste being spun in yarn in the spinning process.

12. Smash
Causes: Caused by a number of ruptured wrap ends that have been repaired.

13. Soiled Filling or End
Causes: Dirty, oil looking spots on the wrap or filling yarns, or on package-dyed yarn.

14. Stop Mark
Causes: When the loom is stopped, the yarn elongates under tension; when loom starts again' the slackness is woven into the fabric.

15. Thin Place
Causes: Often caused by the filling yarn breaking and the loom continuing to run until the operator notices the problem. 
 
16. Holes
Causes: Bad needle, take down mechanism too tight, high tension on yarn, bad yarn needle too tight in their slots, dial height too low or too high, badly tied knots, improper stitch setting.

17. Drop Stitches
Causes: Takedown mechanism too loose, defective needles, too loose yarn tension not sufficient, wrong needle timing set, needle tricks closed.

18. Loop Distortion
Causes: Bad and bent needles, bent trick walls, uneven yarn tension, needle timing set wrong, yarn carriers set wrong. 
  
 

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