What is Hardness of Water? | Potential Problem Caused by Hard Water in Textile Wet Processing Industry

Hardness of Water:
The presence of Calcium, Magnesium salt i.e bi-carbonates, sulphates, Chloride in water is called causes of hardness of water. The water which contains these salt is called hard water. Soft water is relatively free of calcium and magnesium ions. It produces a rich foamy lather with soap. This is essential for the soap to be an effective emulsifying agent for oils and dirt. With hard water, the soluble sodium salt of soap reacts with the alkaline earth metal ions and precipitates as the useless and undesirable calcium or magnesium soap. The cleaning ability is lost.

Hardness of water measurement scale
Fig: Hardness of water measurement scale
Hardness is defined as the presence of soluble calcium and magnesium salts in the water. If these are present in the form of bicarbonates, the hardness is temporary. Heating hard water containing bicarbonates eliminates dissolved carbon dioxide and the causes precipitation of calcium carbonate. Magnesium carbonate is slightly soluble in water but heating will cause its hydrolysis into the much less soluble magnesium hydroxide . Simply boiling and filtering the water therefore eliminates temporary hardness. In regions where water has high temporary hardness, and is used directly without treatment, it is not uncommon to see hot water rinsing and washing baths with a generous crust of chalk (CaCO3) on the inner surfaces. This type of precipitation inside a boiler is also undesirable because the scale reduces the efficiency of heat transfer.


Mg(HCO3)2(aq) =  MgCO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O

MgCO3(aq) + H2O = Mg(OH)2(s) + CO2(g)

Consequences of Using Hard Water:
The use of hard water in a textile dyeing or finishing mill can have some serious consequences. 


These include:
  1. Precipitation of soaps;
  2. Redeposition of dirt and insoluble soaps on the fabric being washed – this can cause yellowing and lead to unlevel dyeing and a poor handle;
  3. Precipitation of some dyes as calcium or magnesium salts;
  4. Scale formation on equipment and in boilers and pipelines;
  5. Reduction of the activity of the enzymes used in desizing;
  6. Decreased solubility of sizing agents;
  7. Coagulation of some types of print pastes;
  8. Incompatibility with chemicals in finishing recipes.
You can also like:
  1. Water Consumption in Textile Industry
  2. Water Purification Process for Textile Wet Processing Industry
  3. Water Hardness Test Method
  4. Determination of Hardness of Water / Water Hardness
  5. Water Treatment Plant (WTP) | Process Sequence of Water Treatment Plant
  6. Characteristics of Effluent Water in Textile Wet Processing Industries
  7. Problem Caused by Hard Water in Wet Processing/Dyeing Industry
  8. Lime-Soda Water Softening Process
  9. Base Exchange (Ion Exchange) Water Softening Process
  10. Demineralization Process of Water Softening
  11. What is Hardness of Water? | Potential Problem Caused by Hard Water in Textile Wet Processing Industry
  12. Some Important Parameters of Water for Textile Wet Processing Industry 
  13. Implementation of Effluent Treatment Plants for Waste Water & Effect of Untreated on Environment 
  14. Effluent Treatment Plant Process Sequence in Textile Industry  
  15. Function of Different Units of Biological Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP)
Sharing Knowledge: Students, teachers and professionals can publish your article here. It is a platform to express your knowledge throughout the world. For details: Submit Article

Editor-in-Chief:

Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.


Let's Get Connected: LinkedIn | Facebook | Google Plus

Back To Top