Textile Softening | Fabric Softening Process | Types of Softener/Softening Agents

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Softening
As a general rule, each fibre has its specific softness value, which depends on its chemical composition and physical structure (less crystallinity = greater softness). The fineness of the fibre or of the filament directly affects the softness of the yarn (woollens, worsteds, microfibers etc.). The yarn twist ratio is inversely proportional to its softness.

The weave also contributes to reducing (closer weave = cloth) or increasing (looser weave = satin) the fabric softness. Furthermore, a greater number of yarns per centimetre increase the stiffness of the fabric, thus reducing its softness.

Softening is carried out when the softness characteristics of a certain fabric must be improved, always carefully considering the composition and properties of the substrate. It is also worth underlining that no standard methods have been developed and established to determine exactly what the softness of a fabric is. This evaluation is therefore almost personal and carried out on the basis of operator.s experience. It is anyway possible to distinguish between many types of softness:

a) surface softness,
b) surface smoothness,
c) elasticity (to compression and stretching).

Fabric Softening Process:
To change the hand properties of a fabric, we can apply mechanical, physical, chemical or combined techniques; some of these methods (sueding, raising) have already been explained in detail in previous sections of this handbook, while some others refers to machines that give different degrees of softness, by means of high-speed rope processing in wet or dry conditions, with the drying stage carried out during the treatment (with or without softeners or enzymes.)

The functional core of these machines are the two tunnels where the fabric is fed through two Venturi tubes. The energy applied for drawing the material is produced only by air and pressure. The fabric flowing through the Venturi tubes is pushed at high speed against a grid on the machine rear side; the fabric then slides on Teflon-coated chutes and reaches the machine front side to start the cycle again; the fabric can reach a speed of 1000 m/min., depending on the type and weight of the different textiles to be processed and according to the desired results. 
 
Schemes of fabric softening machines
This unit applies physical and mechanical principles on fundamental elements such as: 
  • air, which is the fabric propeller and drawing element; 
  • the mechanical stress exerted on the fabric inside the Venturi tubes and the stress due to the impact against the rear grid; 
  •  the eventual action of heat.
It is also worth noticing that water is not a crucial element for the process; it is only a medium for carrying dissolved non biodegradable chemical additives (if required.) The combination of all these elements, almost free of polluting charge, cause the structural modification of the fibres making up the fabric.

They result in more or less marked surface modifications, which can radically change the appearance and the sensorial properties of the fabrics. The complexity of the finishing action starts inside the Venturi tube where the tail of the fabric is subjected simultaneously to a compressive action and to a subsequent series of vibrating pulses which tend to "random-modify" and compact the textile structures, eventually giving them different properties.

The one-way thrusting force is transformed into a impact force against the grid on which the fabric is pushed when emerging from the Venturi tube; this causes other modifications of the fabric and add structural and surface effects.

This simple treatment that combines physical and mechanical principles, carried out at a precise temperature set by the operator, is sufficient to create particular effects on the morphology of fibres and the weave. The modifications produced by this treatment are very different and not only affect the colour, appearance and hand properties of the fabric, but also add new properties, e.g. modifying the refraction and diffraction of light on the fabric surface.

The most notable effects in terms of style and added value are obtained on linen, a precious delicate fibre, particularly difficult to process without using chemicals.

The combination of a chemical product or an enzyme liquor with the mechanical treatment can be carried out not only on linen but also on many other widely used fibres such as Tencel and polynosic fibres, imparting a draping, full and lively hand.

All these effects are obtained thanks to the air thrust and to the following impact against the grid, or to the pressure of rollers on the fabric rope. Comparing the effects of this treatment on a Tencel fabric and on a similar treatment carried out on a dyeing machine, we can see that, as previously explained, this finishing process not only affects the appearance of the fabric, but also .cleans up. the fabric surface homogeneously, as a result providing good anti-pilling properties.

The best softness results can be obtained by carrying out the above mentioned physical mechanical processes and by applying a special chemical softening agent.

As a general rule, the softening agents applied are hygroscopic or lubricating agents, which facilitate the fibre sliding within the fabric structure, thus granting easier deformation and creasing of the fabric. In most cases, the duration of the effect is limited since the products applied during the treatment are eliminated by subsequent washing; for this reason they must be applied in the final stage of the treatment. The most common softeners are below:
  1. Non-ionic Softener
  2. Anionic Softener
  3. Cationic Surfactants
  4. Silicone-Based Softeners
  5. Reactive Softeners
Non-ionic Softeners: 
Generally ethers and polyglycol esters, oxiethylates products, paraffins and fats. These softening agents are generally less efficient than anionic and cationic ones but they withstand the effects of hard waters, acid or basic environment and also in presence of cations and anions, therefore the normal fabric care conditions.

Anionic Softeners: 
Sulphoricinates, anionic surfactants produced by the condensation of fatty acids. They have good characteristics as lubricating softening agents and give the fabric a full hand; they are unstable in hard water and acid environment. In addition, they must not cause yellowing at condensation temperatures.

Cationic Surfactants: 
Usually they are quaternary ammonium salts, amino-esters and amino amides; they are recommended for all types of fibre, and can be also applied with exhaustion process in acid environment (pH 4-5). These are the best softening agents and are also called molecular velveting. Agents because they form bonds with the cationic group on the surface of the fibre generally with negative electric potential. They can give some problem in presence of large anions, and they can cause dye toning, or a reduction in fastness to light values in the presence of direct and reactive dyes; they also have a high polluting charge as waste water (bactericides).

Silicone-Based Softeners: 
These are generally polysiloxane derivatives of low molecular weight. They are insoluble in water, and therefore must be applied on fabrics after dissolution in organic solvents, or in the form of disperse products. They feature quite good fastness to washing. They create a lubricating and moderately waterproof film on the surface and give fabrics a velvetysilky hand (desirable for velvets, upholstery fabrics and emerised fabrics)

Reactive Softeners: 
N-methylol derivatives of superior fatty amides or urea compounds replaced with fatty acids. The products have to be cross-linked and provide permanent softness and water repellency.

As explained previously, even though some softeners can be applied with exhaustion processes on yarns, when softening fabrics, the best technique is the continuous pad-wetting process followed by a drying stage in a stenter. This treatment must be carried out at the end of the finishing process; for this reason, softening is usually performed simultaneously with other dimensional stability processes (width stabilisation, weft and warp straightening). It is worth remembering that the use of softeners can reduce the fastness to rubbing of synthetic fibres dyed with disperse dyes, as the fatty surface layer tend to attract the dye molecules after hot treatments.
 
 

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