Introduction of Under Lap | Closed Lap | Open Lap

The Under Lap
The underlap shog occurs across the side of the needles remote from the hooks on the front of single-needle bar, and in the centre of double-needle bar, warp knitting machines. It supplies the warp yarn between one overlap and the next (Fig.A).The underlap shog generally ranges from 0 to 3 needle spaces, but it might be 14 needle spaces or more depending upon the design of the machine and the fabric structure (although efficiency and production speed will be correspondingly reduced with long underlaps).
A.Under lap shog
Underlaps as well as overlaps are essential in warp knitted structures in order to join the wales of loops together but they may be contributed by different guide bars.

The Closed Lap
A closed lap is produced when a subsequent underlap shogs in the opposite direction to the preceding overlap, thus lapping the same yarn around the back as well as around the front of the needle (Fig.B).
B.Closed Lap
The Open Lap
An open lap is produced either when a subsequent underlap is in the same direction as the preceding overlap (Fig.C) or an underlap is omitted so that the overlap of the next knitting cycle commences in the needle space where the previous overlap finished. Closed laps are heavier, more compact, more opaque, and less extensible than open laps produced from the same yarn at a comparable knitting quality. 
C.Open Lap
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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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