Different Size Ingredients | Function of Size Ingredients

Size Ingredients & Their Functions
1. Gums: 
These materials from the base of size. There are two types of gum:

Natural: Until lately, mainly edible products were used as gums – starches used as 75% of size ingredients & it will continue till to near future. Common starches are potato, maize etc. Wheat flour, corn flour.

Synthetic: Polyvinyl alcohol, Carboximethyl cellulose, Polyacryloamide.

Functions:
  • Coat the warp yarn with a film.
  • Impart smoothness.
  • Blind the protruding fibres to the yarn surface. 
  • Increase elasticity.
2. Lubricants or Softeners: 
Vegetable & animal fats, Japan wax, tallow, cotton seed & castor oils, stearine, glycerin, soap, TRO etc.

Function:
  • To give a softer feel to the sized yarn.
  • To reduce stickiness of yarn.
  • To smoothen the yarn.
3. Antiseptic or Anti Mildew Agent: 
Phenol, boric acid, carboxylic acid, zinc chloride, sodium silicofluoride, cresol etc. The quantity used is very low 0.1 to 2%.

Function:
  • To prevent the growth of mildew.
  • To prevent spoiling of the size mix during storing it for long time. 
  • To help to store the sized yarn.
4. Wetting Agent: 
Sulphanol A, soap, avirol, alizarin oil etc. The amount of wetting agents introduced into the size should not exceed 0.1 to 0.15 gm/ltr.

Function:
  • To improve the size wet ability.
  • Improve the penetration of the size between the fibres.
  • Uniform distribution of the sizing solution on the yarn surface is obtained.
5. Antifoaming Agent: 
Silicones, stearine-paraffin emulsions, benzene, pyridine. The antifoaming agents in amounts of 0.05 to 0.1 gm/ltr are stirred in a small quantity of warm water.

Function:
  • To prevent formation of foam.
6. Tinting Agent:  
Blue is used as tinting agent.

Function:
  • To increase the brightness & remove yellowish color of yarn.
  • To prevent dusting off.
  • To form a particular shade.
7. Weighting Agent:  
The most commonly used substances are soluble inorganic powders such as china clay, talc, barium or calcium sulfate.

Function:
  • To give additional weights to the goods.
  • To prevent opening of cloth.

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Editor-in-Chief:

Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.


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