Size Ingredients & Their Functions
These materials from the base of size. There are two types of gum:
Natural: Until lately, mainly edible products were used as gums – starches used as 75% of size ingredients & it will continue till to near future. Common starches are potato, maize etc. Wheat flour, corn flour.
Synthetic: Polyvinyl alcohol, Carboximethyl cellulose, Polyacryloamide.
- Coat the warp yarn with a film.
- Impart smoothness.
- Blind the protruding fibres to the yarn surface.
- Increase elasticity.
2. Lubricants or Softeners:
Vegetable & animal fats, Japan wax, tallow, cotton seed & castor oils, stearine, glycerin, soap, TRO etc.
- To give a softer feel to the sized yarn.
- To reduce stickiness of yarn.
- To smoothen the yarn.
3. Antiseptic or Anti Mildew Agent:
Phenol, boric acid, carboxylic acid, zinc chloride, sodium silicofluoride, cresol etc. The quantity used is very low 0.1 to 2%.
- To prevent the growth of mildew.
- To prevent spoiling of the size mix during storing it for long time.
- To help to store the sized yarn.
4. Wetting Agent:
Sulphanol A, soap, avirol, alizarin oil etc. The amount of wetting agents introduced into the size should not exceed 0.1 to 0.15 gm/ltr.
- To improve the size wet ability.
- Improve the penetration of the size between the fibres.
- Uniform distribution of the sizing solution on the yarn surface is obtained.
5. Antifoaming Agent:
Silicones, stearine-paraffin emulsions, benzene, pyridine. The antifoaming agents in amounts of 0.05 to 0.1 gm/ltr are stirred in a small quantity of warm water.
- To prevent formation of foam.
6. Tinting Agent:
Blue is used as tinting agent.
- To increase the brightness & remove yellowish color of yarn.
- To prevent dusting off.
- To form a particular shade.
7. Weighting Agent:
The most commonly used substances are soluble inorganic powders such as china clay, talc, barium or calcium sulfate.
- To give additional weights to the goods.
- To prevent opening of cloth.