Bobbin | Structure of the Bobbin

Bobbin is a cylindrical or slightly tapered barrel, with or without flanges, for holding slubbings, rovings, or yarns.

The Structure of the Bobbin
The shape of the bobbin The tube is usually made of paperboard, plastics and has a conical shape similar to the spindle tip; the yarn is wound on the tube leaving a free space (10 ÷ 13 mm) at both ends. A full bobbin (Figure) consists of three different parts:
  1.  The "H2" tapered base (kernel),
  2.  The "H1"cylindrical part at the centre (yarn package or buildup),
  3.  The "H" cone-shape upper end A bobbin is wound starting from the base to the tip by overlapping the various yarn layers frustrum-like; except for the kernel, this gives a conical shape to the material from the edge of the kernel to the tip of the bobbin. 
Each step of the bobbin formation consists essentially of the overlapping of a main yarn layer with a cross-wound tying layer. The main layer is wound during the slow upward travel of the ring rail; the yarn coils laid one next to the other provide the bobbin build-up. The cross layer, made of distant coils inclined downwards, is formed during the quick downward travel of the rail. This system keeps the main layers separated, in order to prevent them from being pressed one inside the other (thus resulting in a quite difficult or almost impossible unwinding of the yarn). 
Bobbin structure
The ratio between the number of yarn coils wound on the bobbin during the upward travel of the rail and the number of yarn coils wound during the downward travel usually range between 2:1 and 2.5:1 ; for this reason the rail must raise slowly (A) and lower quite quickly (B). When unwinding the bobbin at high speed (D) the simultaneous unwinding of many coils could lead to entanglements of the yarn (this does not occur in .C. case).

The yarn wound on the bobbin during each upward and downward travel of the ring rail is called run-out.; to facilitate successive unwinding, the length of the run-out ranges from 3 to 5 m and is smaller for coarse yarns and greater for finer ones. The travel of the rail is considered sufficient when it is 15÷18% larger than the 
ring spinning diameter.

The structure of the bobbin is the result of the continuous motion of the winding point of the yarn on the bobbin affected by the ring rail. The rail travels up and down along the vertical axis to form the main layers, and on the cross axis (with an upward progressive increment) to homogeneously distribute the yarn on the bobbin .

The increment value, i.e. the space between the two subsequent upward travels of the ring rail (winding cycles), determines the forming bobbin diameter with respect to two different parameters: the run-out and the yarn count.

To obtain bobbins of a given diameter it is necessary to consider that the increment is inversely proportional to the yarn count (Nm) and directly proportional to the length of the run-out; in other words, after establishing the diameter of the bobbin, with the same yarn count, when doubling the run-out length, the increment must also be doubled or, with the same run-out length, when doubling the yarn count (Nm) the increment value must be halved. 
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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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