Fiber Properties | Properties of Textile Fibers | Primary Properties of Textile Fibers

Each fibre has particular properties which help us to decide which particular fibre should be used to suite a particular requirement. Certain fibre properties increase its value and desirability in its intended end-use but are not necessary properties essential to make a fibre. Thus it is very essential to know the individual aspects and specific properties of each kind of fibre.

There are several primary properties necessary for a polymeric material to make an adequate fiber.Certain other fiber properties increase its value and desirability in its intended end-use but are not necessary properties essential to make a fiber. Such secondary properties include moisture absorption characteristics, fiber resiliency, abrasion resistance, density, luster, chemical resistance, thermal characteristics, and flammability. 
Some Primary Properties of Textile Fibers are:
  • Fiber length to width ratio,
  • Fiber uniformity,
  • Fiber strength and flexibility,
  • Fiber extensibility and elasticity, and
  • Fiber cohesiveness.
Properties of different fibers are given below:

Nylon Properties

Fiber Type : Nylon

Heat : Melts at 419F to430F.

Bleaches &Solvents : Will bleach.Degrades in mineral acids & oxidizing agents.

Acids & Alkalis : Insoluble in organic solvents Resists weak acids, inert to alkalis. Hydrolyzed by strong acids

Abrasion : Excellent

Mildew, Aging &Sunlight : Excellent resistance to mildew and aging. Prolonged sun exposure can cause degradation.
 

Polyethylene Properties

Fiber Type : Polyethylene

Heat : Melts at 525F

Bleaches &Solvents : Excellent

Acids & Alkalis : Excellent

Abrasion : Good to Poor

Mildew, Aging &Sunlight : Excellent resistance to mildew.
 

Spandex Properties / Lycra Properties

Fiber Type : Spandez® / Lycra®

Heat : Sticks at 350-390F. Melts above 500F.

Bleaches &Solvents : Good resistance to oxidizing agents. Poor resistance to bleaches.

Acids & Alkalis : Good

Abrasion : Good in diluted (weak), but degrades in strong acids & bases.

Mildew, Aging &Sunlight : Excellent aging and mildew resistance. Good resistance to sunlight.
 

Polyester Properties

Fiber Type : Polyester

Heat : Melts at 500F.

Bleaches &Solvents : Excellent

Acids & Alkalis : Good resistance to weak alkalis & weak acids. Moderate resistance to strong acids & alkali.

Abrasion : Excellent

Mildew, Aging &Sunlight : Excellent resistance to mildew, good aging. Degrades after prolonged exposure to sunlight.
 

Fiberglass Properties

Fiber Type : Fiberglass

Heat : Does not burn or melt

Bleaches &Solvents : Excellent solvent & bleach resistance.

Acids & Alkalis : Fair

Abrasion : Good

Mildew, Aging &Sunlight : Excellent
 

Aramid Properties / Kelvar Properties / Nomex Properties / Tarwon Properties / Technora Properties

Fiber Type : Aramid(Kelvar®, Nomex®, Tarwon®, Technora®)

Heat : Difficult to ignite. Does not burn or melt. Decomposes at 800F to 932F.

Bleaches &Solvents : Poor in bleach.Excellent solvent resistance.

Acids & Alkalis : Good in dilute acids & bases. Poor in strong acids & bases.

Abrasion : Fair to Good

Mildew, Aging &Sunlight : Excellent resistance to mildew & aging. Degrades when exposed to sunlight.
 

Flurocarbon Properties / Teflon Properties

Fiber Type : Fluorocarbon -Teflon® (PTFE)

Heat : Very heat resistant -350F to 550F. Melts at 620F.

Bleaches &Solvents : Essentially inert to bleaches & solvents

Acids & Alkalis : Excellent but effected by acids & alkali at high temperatures.

Abrasion : Good

Mildew, Aging &Sunlight : Excellent
 

Fiber Type : Nylon

Density (g/cc) : 1.14

Moisture Regain(%) : 2.8 to 5.0

Elongationat Break(%) : 17 to 45

BreakingTenacity(g/Denier) : 4.0 to 7.2

InitialModulus(CN/tex) : 400

ThermalShrinkage(@ 177 C) : N/A

L.O.I. : ----

MeltingPoint (C/F) : 216/419
 

Fiber Type : Polyester(PET)

Density (g/cc) : 1.38

Moisture Regain(%) : 0.4

Elongationat Break(%) : 15.3

BreakingTenacity(g/Denier) : 9.2

InitialModulus(CN/tex) : 998

ThermalShrinkage(@ 177 C) : 11.6

L.O.I. :----

MeltingPoint (C/F) : 256/493

Kevlar Properties

Fiber Type : Kevlar 29®

Density (g/cc) : 1.44

Moisture Regain(%) : 7

Elongationat Break(%) : 3.6

BreakingTenacity(g/Denier) : 23

InitialModulus(CN/tex) : 4,900

ThermalShrinkage(@ 177 C) : < 0.1

L.O.I. : 28

MeltingPoint (C/F) : 427/800 T

Fiber Type : Kevlar 49®

Density (g/cc) : 1.44

Moisture Regain(%) : 3.5

Elongationat Break(%) : 2.4

BreakingTenacity(g/Denier) : 23.6

InitialModulus(CN/tex) : 7,814

ThermalShrinkage(@ 177 C) : < 0.1

L.O.I. : 28

MeltingPoint (C/F) : 427/800 T

Fiber Type : Nomex®

Density (g/cc) : 1.38

Moisture Regain(%) : 4.5

Elongationat Break(%) : 28

BreakingTenacity(g/Denier) : 4.9

InitialModulus(CN/tex) : 839

ThermalShrinkage(@ 177 C) : 0.4

L.O.I. : 29-30

MeltingPoint (C/F) : 371/700 T

Vectran properties

Fiber Type : Vectran®

Density (g/cc) : 1.41

Moisture Regain(%) : < 0.1

Elongationat Break(%) : 3.3

BreakingTenacity(g/Denier) : 23

InitialModulus(CN/tex) : 4,635

ThermalShrinkage(@ 177 C) : < 0.5

L.O.I.: 35

MeltingPoint (C/F) : 330/625

Fiber Type : Technora®

Density (g/cc) : 1.39

Moisture Regain(%) : 2

Elongationat Break(%) : 4.6

BreakingTenacity(g/Denier) : 28

InitialModulus(CN/tex) : 5,209

ThermalShrinkage(@ 177 C) : < 0.5

L.O.I. : 35

MeltingPoint (C/F) : 330/625

Fiber Type : Twaron®

Density (g/cc) : 1.44

Moisture Regain(%) : 6.5

Elongationat Break(%) : 3.6

BreakingTenacity(g/Denier) : 22.3

InitialModulus(CN/tex) : 4,900

ThermalShrinkage(@ 177 C) : < 0.1

L.O.I. : 25

MeltingPoint (C/F) : 500/932 T

Carbon Properties / Graphite Properties

Fiber Type : Carbon / Graphite

Density (g/cc) : 1.77

Moisture Regain(%) : None

Elongationat Break(%) : 1

BreakingTenacity(g/Denier) : 21.3

InitialModulus(CN/tex) : ----

ThermalShrinkage(@ 177 C) : < 0.1

L.O.I. : ----

MeltingPoint (C/F) : 315/600 T
 

Fiber Type : Fiberglass E-glass

Density (g/cc) : 2.54

Moisture Regain(%) : None

Elongationat Break(%) : 4.8

BreakingTenacity(g/Denier) : 15.3

InitialModulus(CN/tex) : 2,900

ThermalShrinkage(@ 177 C) : < 0.1

L.O.I. :----

MeltingPoint (C/F) : 1121/2050

Fiber Type : Fiber Glass S-Glass

Density (g/cc) : 2.48

Moisture Regain(%) : None

Elongationat Break(%) : 5.7

BreakingTenacity(g/Denier) : 19.8

InitialModulus(CN/tex) : 3,500

ThermalShrinkage(@ 177 C) : < 0.1

L.O.I.:----

MeltingPoint (C/F) : 1493/2719
 

Fiber Type : PBI

Density (g/cc) : 1.43

Moisture Regain(%) : 15

Elongationat Break(%) : 28.5

BreakingTenacity(g/Denier) : 2.7

InitialModulus(CN/tex) : 280

ThermalShrinkage(@ 177 C) : < 0.1

L.O.I. : 41

MeltingPoint (C/F) : 460/860 T

Fiber Type : PTFE (Teflon)

Density (g/cc) : 2.1

Moisture Regain(%) : None

Elongationat Break(%) : 35

BreakinBgTenacity(g/Denier) : 1.7

InitialModulus(CN/tex) : 110

ThermalShrinkage(@ 177 C) : 7

L.O.I. : N/A

MeltingPoint (C/F) : 327/621 TT

Fiber Type : Spectra® /Dyneema®

PBIDensity (g/cc) : 0.97

Moisture Regain(% : < 0.1

Elongationat Break(%) : 2.7-3.5

BreakingTenacity(g/Denier) : 26 to 34

InitialModulus(CN/tex) : 10,595

ThermalShrinkage(@ 177 C) : N/A

L.O.I. : ----

MeltingPoint (C/F) : 147/297
T - Does not melt, begins to decompose
TT - Does not melt, but begins to Gel


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