Fiber Properties | Properties of Textile Fibers | Primary Properties of Textile Fibers

Each fiber has particular properties which help us to decide which particular fiber should be used to suite a particular requirement. Certain fiber properties increase its value and desirability in its intended end-use but are not necessary properties essential to make a fiber. Thus it is very essential to know the individual aspects and specific properties of each kind of fiber.
Various synthetic fibers
Fig: Various synthetic fibers
There are several primary properties necessary for a polymeric material to make an adequate fiber.Certain other fiber properties increase its value and desirability in its intended end-use but are not necessary properties essential to make a fiber. Such secondary properties include moisture absorption characteristics, fiber resiliency, abrasion resistance, density, luster, chemical resistance, thermal characteristics, and flammability.

Some Primary Properties of Textile Fibers are:
  • Fiber length to width ratio,
  • Fiber uniformity,
  • Fiber strength and flexibility,
  • Fiber extensibility and elasticity, and
  • Fiber cohesiveness.

Properties of different fibers are given below:

Properties of Nylon Fiber
Fiber Type : Nylon
Heat : Melts at 419F to430F.
Bleaches & Solvents : Will bleach.Degrades in mineral acids & oxidizing agents.
Acids & Alkalis : Insoluble in organic solvents Resists weak acids, inert to alkalis. Hydrolyzed by strong acids
Abrasion : Excellent
Mildew, Aging & Sunlight : Excellent resistance to mildew and aging. Prolonged sun exposure can cause degradation. 
 
Polyethylene Fiber Properties
Fiber Type : Polyethylene
Heat : Melts at 525F
Bleaches &Solvents : Excellent
Acids & Alkalis : Excellent
Abrasion : Good to Poor
Mildew, Aging &Sunlight : Excellent resistance to mildew. 
 
Spandex Fiber Properties / Lycra Properties
Fiber Type : Spandez® / Lycra®
Heat : Sticks at 350-390F. Melts above 500F.
Bleaches & Solvents : Good resistance to oxidizing agents. Poor resistance to bleaches.
Acids & Alkalis : Good
Abrasion : Good in diluted (weak), but degrades in strong acids & bases.
Mildew, Aging & Sunlight : Excellent aging and mildew resistance. Good resistance to sunlight. 
 
Polyester Fiber Properties
Fiber Type : Polyester
Heat : Melts at 500F.
Bleaches & Solvents : ExcellentAcids & Alkalis : Good resistance to weak alkalis & weak acids. Moderate resistance to strong acids & alkali.
Abrasion resistance: Excellent
Mildew, Aging & Sunlight : Excellent resistance to mildew, good aging. Degrades after prolonged exposure to sunlight. 
 
Fiberglass Properties
Fiber Type : Fiberglass
Heat : Does not burn or melt
Bleaches & Solvents : Excellent solvent & bleach resistance.
Acids & Alkalis : Fair
Abrasion : Good
Mildew, Aging & Sunlight : Excellent 
Heat : Difficult to ignite. Does not burn or melt. Decomposes at 800F to 932F.
Bleaches & Solvents : Poor in bleach.Excellent solvent resistance.
Acids & Alkalis : Good in dilute acids & bases. Poor in strong acids & bases.
Abrasion : Fair to Good
Mildew, Aging & Sunlight : Excellent resistance to mildew & aging. Degrades when exposed to sunlight. 
 
Flurocarbon Fiber Properties / Teflon Fiber Properties
Fiber Type : Fluorocarbon -Teflon® (PTFE)
Heat : Very heat resistant -350F to 550F. Melts at 620F.
Bleaches & Solvents : Essentially inert to bleaches & solvents
Acids & Alkalis : Excellent but effected by acids & alkali at high temperatures.
Abrasion : Good
Mildew, Aging & Sunlight : Excellent 
 
Fiber Type : Nylon
Density (g/cc) : 1.14
Moisture Regain (%) : 2.8 to 5.0
Elongation at Break (%) : 17 to 45
Breaking Tenacity (g/Denier) : 4.0 to 7.2
Initial Modulus (CN/tex) : 400
Thermal Shrinkage (@ 177 C) : N/A
Melting Point (C/F) : 216/419 
 
Fiber Type : Polyester (PET)
Density (g/cc) : 1.38
Moisture Regain (%) : 0.4
Elongation at Break (%) : 15.3
Breaking Tenacity (g/Denier) : 9.2
Initial Modulus (CN/tex) : 998
Thermal Shrinkage (@ 177 C) : 11.6
Melting Point (C/F) : 256/493
 
Kevlar Fiber Properties
Fiber Type : Kevlar 29®
Density (g/cc) : 1.44
Moisture Regain (%) : 7
Elongation at Break (%) : 3.6
Breaking Tenacity (g/Denier) : 23
Initial Modulus (CN/tex) : 4,900
Thermal Shrinkage (@ 177 C) : < 0.1
L.O.I. : 28
Melting Point (C/F) : 427/800 T
 
Fiber Type : Kevlar 49®
Density (g/cc) : 1.44
Moisture Regain (%) : 3.5
Elongation at Break (%) : 2.4
Breaking Tenacity (g/Denier) : 23.6
Initial Modulus (CN/tex) : 7,814
Thermal Shrinkage (@ 177 C) : < 0.1
L.O.I. : 28
Melting Point (C/F) : 427/800 T

Fiber Type : Nomex®
Density (g/cc) : 1.38
Moisture Regain(%) :
4.5
Elongationat Break(%) :
28
BreakingTenacity(g/Denier) :
4.9
InitialModulus(CN/tex) :
839
ThermalShrinkage(@ 177 C) :
0.4
L.O.I. :
29-30
MeltingPoint (C/F) :
371/700 T

Vectran Fiber Properties
Fiber Type : Vectran®
Density (g/cc) : 1.41
Moisture Regain (%) :
< 0.1
Elongation at Break (%) :
3.3
Breaking Tenacity (g/Denier) :
23
Initial Modulus (CN/tex) :
4,635
Thermal Shrinkage (@ 177 C) :
< 0.5
L.O.I.:
35
Melting Point (C/F) :
330/625

Fiber Type : Technora®
Density (g/cc) : 1.39
Moisture Regain(%) :
2
Elongation at Break(%) :
4.6
Breaking Tenacity(g/Denier) :
28
Initial Modulus(CN/tex) :
5,209
Thermal Shrinkage(@ 177 C) :
< 0.5
L.O.I. :
35
Melting Point (C/F) :
330/625

Fiber Type : Twaron®
Density (g/cc) : 1.44
Moisture Regain (%) :
6.5
Elongation at Break (%) :
3.6
Breaking Tenacity (g/Denier) :
22.3
Initial Modulus (CN/tex) :
4,900
Thermal Shrinkage (@ 177 C) :
< 0.1
L.O.I. :
25
Melting Point (C/F) :
500/932 T

Carbon Fiber Properties / Graphite Properties
Fiber Type : Carbon / Graphite
Density (g/cc) : 1.77
Moisture Regain(%) :
None
Elongation at Break(%) :
1
Breaking Tenacity (g/Denier) :
21.3
Initial Modulus (CN/tex) : ----
Thermal Shrinkage (@ 177 C) :
< 0.1
Melting Point (C/F) :
315/600 T 
 
Fiber Type : Fiberglass E-glass
Density (g/cc) : 2.54
Moisture Regain (%) :
None
Elongation at Break (%) :
4.8
Breaking Tenacity (g/Denier) :
15.3
Initial Modulus (CN/tex) :
2,900
Thermal Shrinkage (@ 177 C) :
< 0.1
Melting Point (C/F) :
1121/2050

Fiber Type : Fiber Glass S-Glass
Density (g/cc) : 2.48
Moisture Regain(%) :
None
Elongation at Break (%) :
5.7
Breaking Tenacity (g/Denier) :
19.8
Initial Modulus (CN/tex) :
3,500
Thermal Shrinkage (@ 177 C) :
< 0.1
MeltingPoint (C/F) :
1493/2719 
 
Fiber Type : PBI
Density (g/cc) : 1.43
Moisture Regain(%) :
15
Elongationat Break(%) :
28.5
BreakingTenacity(g/Denier) :
2.7
InitialModulus(CN/tex) :
280
ThermalShrinkage(@ 177 C) :
< 0.1
L.O.I. :
41
MeltingPoint (C/F) :
460/860 T

Fiber Type : PTFE (Teflon)
Density (g/cc) : 2.1
Moisture Regain (%) :
None
Elongation at Break (%) :
35
Breaking Tenacity (g/Denier) :
1.7
Initial Modulus (CN/tex) :
110
Thermal Shrinkage (@ 177 C) :
7
L.O.I. :
N/A
MeltingPoint (C/F) :
327/621 TT

Fiber Type : Spectra® / Dyneema®PBI
Density (g/cc) : 0.97
Moisture Regain(% :
< 0.1
Elongationat Break(%) :
2.7-3.5
BreakingTenacity(g/Denier) :
26 to 34
InitialModulus(CN/tex) :
10,595
ThermalShrinkage(@ 177 C)
: N/A
MeltingPoint (C/F) :
147/297

T - Does not melt, begins to decompose
TT - Does not melt, but begins to Gel

About the Editor-in-Chief:

Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.


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