Classification of Textile Dyeing Process | Fiber Dyeing | Yarn Dyeing | Fabric Dyeing | Garment Dyeing

1. Mass-coloration of the molten fibers 
This method is for dyeing the molten fibers or plastic chips or textile polymers with pigment dyes. After that, the molten or polymers will extrude from a spinneret to form fibers. Normally, the synthetic fibers are added with white pigment in order to give a hiding power (non-see through fabrics).

Advantage: give excellent fastness

Disadvantage: very difficult to clean .


2. Fiber Dyeing
Fiber Dyeing is the method of dyeing fibers before blending with other colors to give fancy yarns or fabrics.

Note: This is used for special purposes only. 


3. Yarn Dyeing
Yarn Dyeing is the method of dyeing yarns in forms of hanks or packages dyeing. This will give Scottish’s style fabrics, carpet with many colors and styles.

Note: This is used in hand loom weaving in the Northern and North-eastern parts of Thailand. 


4. Fabric Dyeing
Fabric Dyeing is the method after weaving, knitting, or non-woven to make fabrics.This is very popular method of dyeing as the dyed fabrics will be processed further togarment industries very easily. Dyeing forms of the fabric dyeing can be used in 2 ways:
  • Open width form using the fabrics to spread without any creases and dye them.  
  • Rope form using the fabrics with the form like a rope (many creases and look like “a rope”)
This method is the last process of the dyeing of goods. However, the penetration of the dye solution may not be completely passed to the fibers such as between the seams, buttons, zippers etc. Normally, it is used for lingerie, socks, sweater dyeing etc.

A. Exhaustion Process 
This method is using lot of water as shown in “Liquor Ratio (ratio between water and goods)” This should immerge the goods into dye solution for a long time in order to let the dye penetrate into the goods. This will lead to produce more waste water than the continuous process.

Advantage: inexpensive, no need to train the worker to look after and run them properly.

Disadvantage: lots of water needed, very slow process (60-120 mm/batch.) 

B. Continuous Process  
This method is designed by putting different machinery into a sequence so that it can produce the dyed fabric in one pass.

Advantage: very fast process (10-100 m/min), small amount of water in the process.

Dyeing Process
Disadvantage: very expensive, need to train the worker to look after and run them properly. Example of the open width form fabric dyeing .

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