Classification of Reactive Dyes

The introduction of reactive dyes by ICI in 1956 is an important landmark in the history of synthetic dyes. These dyes chemically reacted with the fibers with the formation of a covalent bond between the dyes and the fiber. For dark colors, reactive dye is expensive but the colors are colorfast and bright. For pastel and bright colors we always use reactive dye. We have also published several articles on reactive dyes. You will find here: Comprehensive Study on Reactive Dyes. In this article I will classify reactive dyes.

Reactive dyes may be classified in various ways as below:

1) On the basis of reactive group:
a) Halogen (commonly chlorine) derivatives of nitrogen containing heterocycle, like 3 types-

  • Triazine group
  • Pyridimine group
  • Quinoxaline dyes

Triazine derivatives: procion, cibacron.
Pyridimine derivatives: reactone
Quinoxaline derivatives: levafix.

b) Activated vinyl compound:

  • Vinyl sulphone
  • Vinyl acrylamide
  • Vinyl sulphonamide.

Vinyl sulphone: remazol
Vinyl acrylamide: primazine
Vinyl sulphonamide: levafix.

2) On the basis of reactivity:

a) Lower reactive dye: Here ph is maintained 12-12.5 by using NaOH in bath.
b) Medium reactive dye: here pH is maintained 11-12 by using Na2CO3 in dye bath.
c) Higher reactive dye: here pH is maintained 10-11 by using NaHCO3 in dye bath. 

3) On the basis of dyeing temperature:

a) Cold brand:
These types of dyes contain reactive group of high reactivity. So dyeing can be done in lower temperature i.e. 320-600C.

For example: PROCION M, LIVAFIX E.

b) Medium brand:
This type of dyes contains reactive groups of moderate reactivity. So dyeing is done in higher temperature than that of cold brand dyes i.e. in between 600-710C temperatures.

For example, Remazol, Livafix are medium brand dyes.

c) Hot brand:
This type of dye contains reactive groups of least reactivity. So high temperature is required for dyeing i.e. 720-930 C temperature is required for dyeing.

For example PRICION H, CIBACRON are hot brand dyes. 
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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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