Dyeing Process | Process of Dyeing Technique

Dyeing Process:
Dyeing is governed by three factors, the dye, the fiber and the dye liquor. All the three lead an independent assistance which influences the technique of dyeing. A dye must be water soluble in order to dye textile materials. It may be soluble by nature of its chemical interference.
Dyeing Process
Fabric dyeing
The dyeing process can thus be considered as taking place in three phases
  • Attachment of the dye molecule to the surface of the fiber
  • Penetration into the intermolecular spaces as well as diffusion through the fiber &
  • Orientation (and fixation) along the long chain molecules.
The solution of the dye from which it is applied is called the „dye bath‟. A dye may have direct „affinity‟ for a fiber (or vice versa) i.e., it is held by the fibre either physically (absorption) or chemically (combination) as soon as the fiber is immersed in the dye bath.

Accumulation of the dye in the fiber is a gradual process, the rate of such building up being referred to as the 'rate of dyeing'.
  1. This rate of dyeing is governed by the condition of the dye bath, namely concentration of dye, temperature, and presence of electrolytes; it is proportional to all three factors.
  2. The rate of dyeing is also influenced by the „Material to liquor‟ which is expressed by a fraction, e.g. 1:20, which means one part (by weight) of the textile material dyed in twenty times its weight of dye bath.
  3. The rate of dyeing decreases with increasing ratio of goods to liquor.
Dyeing is carried out to produce a certain „Shade‟ by which is meant a certain color, difference in shade being due to different ‟Hue‟. A blue shade may, for instance, have a greenish or a reddish hue.The amount of dye needed for the production of a certain depth of shade is expressed as a percentage of the weight of the material. A 1% dyeing represents a shade produced by the coloring of 100 lbs. of material with one lb. of (commercial) dye under well defined dyeing conditions. It is necessary to define these conditions because of their influence on the „exhaustion‟ of the dye bath. Exhaustion determines that amount of dye which is taken up the fiber or in directly, that amount which remains in the dye bath after „equilibrium‟ between dye and fiber is reached, i.e., at that point where no further dyeing takes place.

About the Editor-in-Chief:

Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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