Identification of Textile Fiber | Fiber Test for Identification

There are many methods available for identification of the structural, physical, and chemical properties of fibres. Various methods are used for fibre identification like microscopic methods, solubility, heating and burning method, density and staining etc. End-use property characterization methods often involve use of laboratory techniques which are adapted to simulate actual conditions of average wear on the textile or that can predict performance in end-use.

TYPES OF TEST
The Non technical Test
  1.  FEELING TEST
  2.  BURNING TESTS
The Technical Test
  1. MICROSCOPIC TEST 
  2. CHEMICAL TEST
Tests for identification
  1. Handle/Feel Test
  2. Visual Examination
  3. Burning test
  4. Twist on Drying
  5. Floatation Test
  6. Microscopic analysis
  7. Chemical Analysis
Requirements for tests:
  1. Preparation of test specimen
  2. Apparatus for microscopic examination
  3. Reagents used for chemical tests
  4. Other tools and equipment
THE NON-TECHNICAL TESTS
  1. Feeling test
  2. Burning test
FEELING TEST
  • The feeling test requires perception if it is to be of any value.
  • Skilled perception is acquired only after handling many different fabrics over a period of time.
  • Limitations of this test become apparent when examining and comparing fabrics of different fiber content.
BURNING TEST

To recognize the composition of fabrics by the burning test ,the sample of fibre, yarn of fabric should be moved slowly towards a small flame and the reaction to heat carefully observed .One end of the sample should be put directly into flame to determine its burning rate and characteristics. The burning odour should be noted and the characteristics of the ash such as amount , form, hardness and colour should be examined.

TECHNICAL TESTS

There are certain technical tests performed for identifying various fibers. These tests req uire high technology laboratory equipment a nd are much more reliable than the non tech nical fibre tests. Technicals tests require high skilled personn el and technical know how of handling chemi cals and their accurate analysis. These tests are very valuable for those fabrics that are a blend of different yarns and also have certai n special properties including flame retardan ce etc.

TYPES OF TECHNICAL TEST
  1. Microscopic test
  2. Chemical test
MICROSCOPIC TEST
  1.  Microscopic test is a technical test that involves identifying the fabric with the help of a microscope with a magnification of minimum 100 power.
  2.  The test can easily distinguish between fibers.
  3. The test identifies the natural fibers more easilyas compared to man made ones.
  4. Synthetic fibers are very similar in appearanceand the increase in the number of varieties, makes it a little tough to distinguish the fibers even under a microscope.
CHEMICAL TESTS
  1.  Chemical tests are another technical means of identifying fibers. But chemical tests are not  intended for the general consumers. Different types of chemical tests are undertaken to establish the identity of the fibers used.
  2.  These tests give accurate and precise analysis.
  3.  The tests are conducted in research laboratory

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