Functions of Emulsion Ingredients in Jute Spinning

Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. Jute is one of the most affordable natural fibers and is second only to cotton in amount produced and variety of uses of vegetable fibers. Jute fibers are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose and lignin. For preparation of jute fiber for carding process emulsion is essential. In this article I will explain, what is emulsion and functions of emulsion ingredients.

What is emulsion:
Emulsion is a mixture of some lubricating agents which is applied on jute fiber to make the fiber soften and flexible for spinning; prepared for spun.
Emulsion applied on jute
Fig: Emulsion applied on jute
An emulsion is an intimate mixture of two immiscible liquids where one is dispersed in small globules on the other and addition of a third substance brings stability. Emulsion is made by splitting up oil into minute drops which are prevented from reuniting in water.

Ingredients of emulsion and their functions:
Water, oil, emulsifier of the ingredients of emulsion.

General recipe of emulsion:
  • Water -------------- 73%
  • Oil ------------------ 25.4%
  • Emulsifier --------- 1.6%
Function of Oil:
  1. It lubricates the fiber.
  2. It helps fiber to move freely during processing.
  3. It makes the fibre soft and gives more spinning property.
  4. It cleans the pins and rollers of the machine.
Function of Water:
  1. It increases extensibility of fibre which resists fibre breakage during processing.
  2. It gives sufficient dampness and flexibility to the fiber.
Function of Emulsifier:
Emulsifier is a surface active agents. These are soaps, detergents, wetting agents etc. Functions of emulsifier are given below.
  1. It removes temporary hardness of water.
  2. It helps emulsion to remain in stable form.
  3. It reduces surface tension.
  4. It makes droplet formation easier.
  5. It stabilizes the emulsion.
  6. It reduces surface tension.
  7. It prevents separation of oil from water.
Function of Urea:
  1. It helps easy penetration of emulsion into the fibre.
  2. It helps fibre to be soften quickly.
  3. It reduces maturity time to half generally fiber is stored 48 hrs incase of normal emulsion. When emulsion contain Urea, it keeps maturity time 24 hrs.
Requirements of emulsifier and water:
To became ingredients of emulsion, emulsifier and water should have some requirements. Requirements of emulsifier and water are given below:

Requirements of emulsifier:
  1. Emulsifier must not impair the lubricating properties.
  2. It should no have objectionable color and odor.
  3. It should be chemically inert with fiber.
  4. Moisture regain should be less than 30%
  5. It should have good wetting properties.
Requirements of water:
  1. Water should become soft and must be free from Carbon-di-oxide, Mg, Fe etc.
  2. Hard water should be treated before using.
  3. It should be colorless and odorless.
  4. It should be free from suspended mineral.
  5. It should be acceptable. 
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  5. Functions of Emulsion Ingredients in Jute Spinning
  6. Faults of Emulsion in Jute Spinning
  7. Working Principle of Jute Spreader Machine
  8. Working Principle of Jute Softener Machine
  9. Factors Considered for Batch Selection
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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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