Textile Fiber : A unit of matter, either natural or manufactured, that forms the basic element of fabrics and other textile structures. A fiber is characterized by having a length at least 100 times its diameter or width. The term refers to units that can be spun into a yarn or made into a fabric by various methods including weaving, knitting, braiding, felting, and twisting. The essential requirements for fibers to be spun into yarn include a length of at least 5 millimeters, flexibility, cohesiveness, and sufficient strength. Other important properties include elasticity, fineness, uniformity, durability, and luster.
Properties of Fiber : We saw three types of properties according to the fiber properties for a textile fiber. There are a lot of characteristic in the textile fibers. But it is characterized as three basic characterization.
- Physical properties,
- Chemical properties
- Mechanical properties of Textile fiber.
1. Physical Properties :
- Length ----------Staple (15mm - 150 mm)
- Fineness ---------- Length : Width = 1000:1
- Cross Sectional Shape
2. Mechanical Properties :
- Strength (Tenacity) (P.S.I)
- Elasticity (Recovery percentage)
- Extensibility (Breaking Extension)
- Rigidity (Stiffness)
3. Chemical Properties :
Solubility in aquas and organic solvent.Useful properties of another hind desired in a textile fiber are indicated bellow.
- Behavior towards dyes.
- Ability to moisture absorption
- Resistance to deteriorating influence including; light, thermal stability, resistance to bacteria, mildow moth and other destructive insect, corrosive chemicals.