Dyeing Methods | Methods of Dyeing | Chain Dyeing | Cross Dyeing | Stock dyeing | Top dyeing | Yarn dyeing | Bale Dyeing | Batik Dyeing | Skein (Hank) Dyeing | Package Dyeing | Warp-beam Dyeing | Space Dyeing | Piece Dyeing | Beck dyeing | Jig dyeing | Pad dyeing | Jet dyeing | Solution pigmenting or dope dyeing | Garment dyeing | Random Dyeing

Dyeing Methods
Color is applied to fabric by different methods and at different stages of the textile manufacturing process. The process of applying color to fiber stock, yarn or fabric is called dyeing." There may or may not be thorough penetration of the colorant into the fibers or yarns.

Dyes can be used on vegetable, animal or man made fibers only if they have affinity to them. Textile dyes include acid dyes, used mainly for dyeing wool, silk and nylon and direct or substantive dyes, which have a strong affinity for cellulose fibers. Mordant dyes require the addition of chemical substances, such as salts to give them an affinity for the material being dyed. They are applied to cellulose fibers, wool or silk after such materials have been treated with metal salts. Sulfur dyes, used to dye cellulose, are inexpensive, but produce colors lacking brilliance. Azoic dyes are insoluble pigments formed within the fiber by padding, first with a soluble coupling compound and then with a diazotized base. Vat dyes, insoluble in water, are converted into soluble colorless compounds by means of alkaline sodium hydrosulfite. These colorless compounds are absorbed by the cellulose, which are subsequently oxidized to an insoluble pigment. Such dyes are colorfast. Disperse dyes are suspensions of finely divided insoluble, organic pigments used to dye such hydrophobic fibers as polyesters, nylon and cellulose acetates.
Garment dyeing
Garment dyeing
Reactive dyes combine directly with the fiber, resulting in excellent colorfastness. The first ranges of reactive dyes for cellulose fibers were introduced in the mid-1950. Today, a wide variety is available.

Dyeing Methods | Methods of Dyeing
  1. Chain Dyeing
  2. Cross Dyeing
  3. Stock dyeing
  4. Top dyeing
  5. Yarn dyeing
  6. Bale Dyeing
  7. Batik Dyeing
  8. Skein (Hank) Dyeing
  9. Package Dyeing
  10. Warp-beam Dyeing
  11. Space Dyeing
  12. Piece Dyeing
  13. Beck dyeing
  14. Jig dyeing
  15. Pad dyeing
  16. Jet dyeing
  17. Solution pigmenting or dope dyeing
  18. Garment dyeing
  19. Random Dyeing
Chain Dyeing
This is used when yarns and cloth are low in tensile strength. Several cuts or pieces of cloth are tacked end-to-end and run through in a continuous chain in the dye color. This method affords high production.

Cross Dyeing
This is a very popular method in which varied color effects are obtained in the one dye bath for a cloth which contains fibers with varying affinities for the dye used. For example, a blue dyestuff might give nylon 6 a dark blue shade, nylon 6, 6 a light blue shade, and have no affinity for polyester area unscathed or white.

Stock Dyeing
Stock dyeing is used to dye fibers. In this process, the staple fibers are packed into a vessel and then dye liquid is forced through them. Although the dye solution is pumped in large quantities, the dye may not penetrate completely into the fibers and some areas may be left without dyeing. However, the following blending and spinning processes mix up the fibers in such a thorough way that it results in an overall even color. Woolens are usually stock dyed.

Top dyeing
Top is the combed wool sliver. It is wound on perforated spools and the dye solution is circulated through it. This method results in very even dyeing.

Yarn Dyeing
Stock dyeing is used to dye fibers. In this process, the staple fibers are packed into a vessel and then dye liquid is forced through them. Although the dye solution is pumped in large quantities, the dye may not penetrate completely into the fibers and some areas may be left without dyeing. However, the following blending and spinning processes mix up the fibers in such a thorough way that it results in an overall even color. Woolens are usually stock dyed.

When dyeing is done after the fiber has been spun into yarn, it is called yarn dyeing. In this method, the dyestuff penetrates the fibers to the core of the yarn. There are many forms of yarn dyeing- Skein (Hank) Dyeing, Package Dyeing, Warp-beam Dyeing,and Space Dyeing.

Bale Dyeing
This is a low cost method to dye cotton cloth. The material is sent without scouring or singeing, through a cold water bath where the sized warp has affinity for the dye. Imitation chambray and comparable fabrics are often dyed this way.

Batik Dyeing
This is one of the oldest forms known to man. It originated in Java. Portions of the fabric are coated with wax so that only un-waxed areas will take on the dye matter. The operation may be repeated several times and several colors may used for the bizarre effects. Motifs show a mlange, mottled or streaked effect, imitated in machine printing.

Skein (Hank) Dyeing
The yarns are loosely arranged in skeins or coils. These are then hung over a rung and immersed in a dyebath in a large container. In this method, the colour penetration is the best and the yarns retain a softer, loftier feel. It is mostly used for bulky acrylic and wool yarns.

Package Dyeing
The yarns are wound on spools, cones or similar units and these packages of yarn are stacked on perforated rods in a rack and then immersed in a tank. In the tank, the dye is forced outward from the rods under pressure through the spools and then back to the packages towards the center to penetrate the entire yarn as thoroughly as possible. Mostly, the carded and combed cotton which are used for knitted outerwear is dyed through this method.

Warp-beam Dyeing
It is similar to package dyeing but more economical. Here, the yarn is wound on to a perforated warp beam and then immersed in a tank for dyeing it applying pressure.

Space Dyeing
In this method, the yarn is dyed at intervals along its length. For these two procedures- knit- deknit method and OPI Space-Dye Applicator- are adopted. In the first method, the yarn is knitted on either a circular or flat-bed knitting machine and the knitted cloth is then dyed and subsequently it is deknitted. Since the dye does not readily penetrate the areas of the yarn where it crosses itself, alternated dyed and undyed spaces appear. The OPI Space-Dye Applicator technique produces multi coloured space- dyed yarns. The yarns are dyed intermittently as they run at very high speeds through spaced dyebaths. They are continuously subjected to shock waves produced by compressed air having supersonic velocities.

Piece Dyeing
The constructed fabrics are piece dyed for the flexibility they provide. The textile manufacturer can dye the whole fabric in batches according to the fashion demands of the time thus avoiding wastage and resultantly loss. There are several methods prevalent or piece dyeing.

Beck dyeing
It is used for dyeing long yards of fabric. The fabric is passed in rope form through the dyebath. This rope of the fabric moves over a rail onto a reel which immerses it into the dye and then draws the fabric up and forward and brings it to the front of the machine. This process is repeated many times until the desired color intensity is obtained.

Jig dyeing
It is similar to the process of beck dyeing with a slight variation. The fabric in jig dyeing is held on rollers at full width rather than in rope form as it is passed through the dyebath.

Pad dyeing
Padding is also done while holding the fabric at full width. The fabric is passed through a trough having dye in it. Then it is passed between two heavy rollers which force the dye into the cloth and squeeze out the excess dye. Then it is passed through a heat chamber for letting the dye to set. After that it is passed through washer, rinser and dryer for completing the process.

Jet dyeing
Fabric is placed in a heated tube where jets of dye solution are forced through it at high pressures. The fabric too moves along the tube. The solution moves faster than the cloth while coloring it thoroughly.

Solution pigmenting or dope dyeing
This is a method applied for dyeing the synthetic fibers. Dye is added to the solution before it is extruded through the spinnerets for making synthetic filaments. This gives a colorfast fiber as the pigments are used which are the fastest known colors.

Garment dyeing
When the finished textile product such as hosiery or sweaters are dyed, it is called garment dyeing. A number of garments are packed loosely in a nylon net and put into a dyestuff filled tub with a motor driven paddle. The dye is thrown upon the garments by the moving paddles' effect.

Random Dyeing
Coloring only certain designated portions of the yarn. There are three ways of doing this type of coloring:

Skeins may be tightly dyed in two or more places and dyed at one side of the dye with one color and at the other side with another one. Color may be printed onto the skeins which are spread out on the blanket fabric of the printing machine.

Cones or packages of yarn on hollow spindles may be arranged to form channels through which the yarn, by means of air-operated punch, and the dyestuff are drawn through these holes by suction. The yarn in the immediate area of the punch absorbs the dye and the random effects are thereby attained.


Anonymous said...


Comment here

Textile Learner is the largest Textile Blog over the net. It is an ultimate reference for textile students. It describes textile articles in comprehensive. It also supplies news on latest textile technology, educational institute news of the world.