Yarn | Classification of Yarns | Yarn Designation

Yarn is a generatic term of continuous stand of textile fiber which is suitable for making fabric. Yarns play a vital role in the fabric manufacturing process. Yarn is a product of substantial length and relatively small cross-section consisting of fibers or filaments with or without twist. It is the long fine structures capable of being assembled or interlaced into such textile products as woven and knitted fabrics, braids, ropes, and cords.
Classification of Yarns:

 1. Single Yarn.
  • Continuous Filament.
  • Spun Yarn. It can be two types. One is Homogeneous, another is Blended.
  • Modified Continuous Filament.
  2. Multi-folded Yarn/ Ply Yarn.
  3. Cabled Yarn.
  4. Complex Yarn/ Core Spun Yarn
  5. Fancy Yarn/ Novelty Yarn
  6. Stretch Yarn 
  7. High Bulk Yarn

A brief description of different types of yarn are given below:

Single yarn: It is the simplest continuous strand of fiber. Spun yarn or filament yarn is single yarn.

Fly yarn: Fly yarn is produced by twisting two or more single yarn together. It is also called folded yarn.

Cabled yarn: Cabled yarn is produced by twisting two or more ply or folded yarns. Example-cords.

Core spun yarn: It is a special type of yarn. Core spun yarn is formed by wrapping with staple fiber a continuous filament core.

Fancy or novelty yarn: A fancy yarn can be defined as one that differs from the normal construction of a single or doubled yarn by deliberately introduced irregularities in its construction.

Stretch yarn: Stretch yarns are synthetic yarns that are very tightly twisted, heat-set, and then untwisted, producing a spiral crimp giving a springy character. Generally 87% Cotton, 13% Polyester is used to make stretch yarn.

Yarn Designation:
The factor which are required to express yarn structure and properties wholly, are called yarn designation.

The factors of yarn designation are:-
  1. Yarn Count / Linear Density.
  2. No. of Filaments.
  3. Fibre Components.
  4. No. of components in folding.
  5. Direction & amount of twist.
You can also like:
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  2. Types of Yarn | Characteristics of Yarn
  3. Cotton Yarn Manufacturing Process
  4. Yarn Faults | Defects of Yarn
  5. Yarn Hairiness | Hariness of Yarn | Uster Hairiness Index | Zweigle Hairiness Index
  6. Yarn Splicing | Types of Yarn Splices | Method of Yarn Splicing
  7. Yarn Quality Parameters for Knitting
  8. Branding in Yarn Industry Does It Really Matters?
  9. Yarn Tests | Determination of Yarn Count, Evenness, Tensile Strength, Twist and Abrasion Resistance Test
  10. Contribution to Yarn Irregulation or Variation in Spinning Operation
  11. An Overview of Knotting of Yarn
  12. Yarn Twist | Twist direction | Types of Twist | Twist Principle
  13. Yarn Texturing Method | Different Texturing Methods of Yarn
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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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