Principle of Negative Tappet Shedding Mechanism

A tappet is given a rotary motion so that it depresses a follower and a lever, known respectively as the anti-friction bowl and the treadle arrangement, by means of which the heald shaft is operated.

Figure shows a negative tappet shedding mechanism. A pair of tappets A and B are fixed to the bottom shaft C at 180 degrees to each other. Two treadle levers D and E are connected to the loom back-rail by a bracket F.

The bracket acts as a fulcrum for the levers. The two treadles have teeth to carry the lamb rods G and H respectively. Two heald shafts J and K are connected to the lamb rods. A top reversing roller shaft Q carries two rollers of different diameters. The roller of small diameter N is connected to a leather strap L to which the front heald shaft J is connected. The roller P of large diameter is connected to a leather strap M to which the back heald shaft K is connected. The tappets A and B touch the anti-friction bowls or followers R and S respectively, which are fixed to the treadle levers.
Figure : Negative tappet shedding mechanism
The heald shafts have heald eyes T and U through which the war p threads pass X is the war p sheet and Y is the cloth. The odd ends are passed through one heald shaft while the even ends are passed through the other heald shaft.

Working Process:
When the bottom shaft is rotated in the clockwise direction as shown in the figure, the tappets are also rotated. The tappet will depress the anti-friction bowl and the treadle. Being fulcrumed at one end, the front portion of the treadle moves down. This action is transferred to the lamb rod, the heald shaft and the leather strap. So one heald shaft is lowered and the threads connected to this heald shaft are lowered and form the bottom layer of the shed.

The leather straps attached to the reversing rollers are connected in opposite directions, i.e. when leather strap is pulled down, it is unwound from its roller. The shaft therefore rotates in the clockwise direction and the other leather strap is wound on to its roller. The heald shaft is raised and therefore the lamb rod and treadle lever are also raised. The threads connected to the heald shaft are also raised and form the top layer of the shed.

For the next shed, the other tappet works with the other set of bowl, treadle, lamb rod, heald shaft, strap and roller and the other heald shaft is lowered. The first heald shaft is raised by the top reversing rollers, and the positions of the healds shafts are thus interchanged. Thus, for one rotation of the bottom shaft, two sheds are formed.

In this type of tappet shedding therefore, one tappet depresses the concerned treadle and the corresponding heald shaft is lowered. But the other heald shaft is raised by means of the top reversing rollers. So this type of shedding mechanism is known as “negative tappet shedding mechanism”

Timings and Settings:
  1. Turn the crank to the top centre position.
  2. Fix the anti-friction bowls to the treadle levers; they should move freely in the slots.
  3. Fix the treadle levers with a bracket to the back rail of the loom.
  4. Set the grid and grid bracket to the front rail of the loom in the slots of the grid.
  5. Make sure that the tappet with the lower throw is fixed to the bottom shaft at the starting handle side.
  6. Fix the top reversing rollers to the top reversing roller shaft to be equidistant from the ends and at the same time ensure that the connecting screws of the rollers are symmetrical about the central axis of the shaft when the heald shafts are at the same level. The roller of smaller diameter is always connected to front heald shaft.
  7. The heald shafts are connected to the top reversing rollers by means of cords and leather straps. The leather straps are connected to the rollers, such that when one of them winds on its roller the other strap unwinds from its roller and vice versa.
  8. Lamb rods are connected to the heald shafts by cords.
  9. Adjust the tappets on the bottom shaft and make sure of the following points :
  • The tappet with a bigger throw should be connected to the back heald shaft.
  • The bowls should have perfect contact with the tappet surfaces.
  • The treadles should be at the same level and parallel to each other at the top centre position.
Heald shafts : The hook of the lamb rod of the front heald shaft should be connected to the first notch of the treadle lever while that of the back heald shaft should be connected to the third notch. If the depth of shed is altered, the connections of the hooks to the treadle levers can be changed.

Points to be Observed:
  1. Turn the crank shaft through two revolutions and make sure that the bowls are always in contact with the tappets.
  2. The heald shafts should not touch the side frames or the sley.
  3. Turn the crank shaft to the bottom centre and check the size of shed. The bottom line of warp sheet or the heald eyes of the lowered heald shaft should have a clearance of 1 mm from the race board and the top.
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Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.

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