Textile Dictionary-T

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 

Taffeta

A closely woven, plain-weave fabric with a crisp handle and a smooth surface

Tape Yarn

A yarn used for knitwear in the form of a tape with a large width-to-thickness ratio. Such yarns are typically formed by weaving or knitting. Knitted tape yarns are often made on circular knitting machines, giving them a tubular cross-section.

Tanquis

A type of long staple fibre cotton.

Tapestry

A closely woven figured fabric with a compound structure in which a pattern is developed by the use of coloured yarns in the warp or in the weft or both. A fine binder warp and weft may be incorporated. The fabric is woven on jacquard looms and is normally used for upholstery.

Tear Resistance

A measurement of fabric strength. Also, a property imparted by using "ripstop" yarns in close woven fabrics

Tenacity

A unit used to measure the strength of a fibre or yarn, usually calculated by dividing the breaking force by the linear density

Tex

A measure of linear density; the weight in grams of 1,000 metres of yarn.

Textured Yarn

A continuous filament yarn that has been processed to introduce durable crimps, coils, loops or other fine distortions along the lengths of the filaments.

Thermal bonding

Part of a production route for making nonwovens in which a web, which must contain some meltable synthetic fibres, is heated by a hot gas or by calendering. The fibres melt and form inter-fibre bonds.

Tie-dye

A traditional dyeing process in which fabric is tied and dyed.

Tuck Stitch

A stitch consisting of a held loop.

Tweed

Originally, a coarse, heavyweight, rough surfaced wool fabric for outerwear, woven in Scotland. The term is now applied to fabrics made in a wide range of weights and qualities, generally from woollen spun yarns

Twill

A fabric produced by constructing a weave that repeats on three or more warp threads and weft threads, and produces diagonal lines on the face of the fabric

Tyre cord fabric

A fabric that forms the main carcase of a pneumatic tyre. It is constructed predominantly of a ply warp with a light weft to assist processing

Taffeta

Fabric that is usually made from silk in a plain weave and is useful for draperies.

Tapestry

Originally handwoven with the design wove right into the fabric and an essential part of the fabric. Tapestries made by machine are made with the jacquard attachment and have a smooth back with limited colors. Many tapestries represent scenes of everyday life and were some symbols of wealth and nobility. They are a very durable choice for upholstery.

Ticking

Closely woven cotton in a twill or satin weave, usually woven in stripes and used for mattress covers, slipcovers, upholstery use and pillows.

Toiles de Jouy

Toiles are printed fabrics usually in monotones that tell a story by depicting scenes from daily life or special occasions.

Tussah silk

Wild silk from cocoons that fed on oak leaves and is a light brown in color.

Tweed

Woolen homespun material originally from Scotland, the term now applies to a large group of woolen goods woven in twill, plain or herringbone weave.

Taffeta

A lustrous, medium weight, plain weave fabric with a slight ribbed appearance in the filling (crosswise) direction. For formal wear, taffeta is a favorite choice. It provides a crisp hand, with lots of body. Silk taffeta gives the ultimate rustle, but other fibers are also good choices.

Tape

Fabric sewn to a garment at the front edges, armholes, shoulder, neck, sideseams, vents, bottoms, gorge seams, etc. It is usually designed to prevent distortion of a fabric edge or seam.

Tapestry

A heavy, often hand-woven, ribbed fabric, featuring an elaborate design depicting a historical or current pictorial display. The weft-faced fabric design is made by using colored filling yarns, only in areas where needed, that are worked back and forth over spun warp yarns, which are visible on the back. End-uses include wall hangings and upholstery.

Tear Strength

The force necessary to tear a fabric, measured by the force necessary to start or continue a tear in a fabric. Expressed in pounds or in grams, the most commonly used method for determining the tear strength is the Elmendorf tear test procedure.

Tensile Strength (Breaking Stregth)

The strength shown by a fiber, yarn, or fabric to resist breaking under pressure. It is the actual number of pounds of resistance that a fabric will give before the material is broken on the testing machine

Tension Control Weave

A type of decorative weave, characterized by a puckered effect which occurs because the tension in the warp yarns is intentionally varied before the filling yarns are placed in the fabric.

Terry Cloth

A typical uncut pile weave fabric. This fabric is formed by using two sets of warp yarns. One set of warp yarns is under very little tension; when the filling yarns are packed into place, these loose yarns are pushed backward along with the filling yarns, and loops are formed. Typical uses include towels, robes, and apparel.

Terry Velour

A pile weave cotton fabric with an uncut pile on one side and a cut pile on the reverse side. Terry velour is valued for its soft, luxurious hand. Typical uses include towels, robes, and apparel.

Textured Yarns

The yarns that result after undegoing the texturizing process, which can create crimping, looping, and otherwise modify the filament yarn for the purpose of increasing cover, abrasion resistance, insulation, warmth resilience, or moisture absorption, and to provide a different surface texture. When filament yarns are texturized, and then woven or knitted into fabrics, the result is that the finished fabric?s properties resemble a fabric that has been made from a spun yarn. Most of today's filament polyester is texturized.

Texturizing

A process performed on specialized machinery which create bulk, stretch to the yarn, and therefore creates new aesthetics to the finished fabric.

Thermal Insulation

The ability of a fabric to retain heat.

Thermoregulation

The ability to maintain a constant temperature independent of dynamic (changing) environmental conditions.

Thread Count

The number of ends and picks per inch in a woven cloth; the number of wales and courses per inch in a knit fabric. See "Count of Cloth".

Ticking

A tightly woven, very durable fabric, usually made of cotton, and used for covering mattresses, box springs, pillows, and work clothes. The fabric can be made by using a plain, satin, or twill weave construction.

Ticking

Compactly woven cotton cloth used for containers, covers for mattresses and pillows, sportswear (hickory stripes), institution fabric, and work clothes. It is striped cloth, usually white background with blue or brown stripes in the motif.

Tow

A large bundle of manufactured filament fiber as they are extruded from the spinerette, and before they have been cut into staple fibers.

Triacetate

A manufactured fiber, which like acetate, is made by modifying cellulose. However, even more acetate groups have been added to create this fiber. Triacetate is less absorbent and less sensitive to high temperatures than acetate. It can be hand or machine washed and tumble dried, with relatively good wrinkle recovery.

Tricot Knit

A warp knit fabric in which the fabric is formed by interlooping adjacent parallel yarns. The warp beam holds thousands of yards of yarns in a parallel arrangement, and these yarns are fed into the knitting area simultaneously. Sufficient yarns to produce the final fabric width and length are on the beam. Tricot knits are frequently used in women's lingerie items such as slips, bras, panties, and nightgowns.

Trim-cut

Tapered and tailored, or a form-fitting garment.

Trunk

Double the length of a coverall, from the center of the neckhole at the back to the point of the leg separation on the seat seam.

Tulle

A lightweight, extremely fine, machine-made netting, usually with a hexagon shaped mesh effect. End-uses include dance costumes and veils.

Turning

The reversing of two or more pieces of material that are seamed together for pressing or topstitching.

Tweed

A medium to heavy weight, fluffy, woolen, twill weave fabric containing colored slubbed yarns. Common end-uses include coats and suits.

Twill Weave

A basic weave in which the fabrics are constructed by interlacing warp and filling yarns in a progressive alternation which creates a diagonal effect on the face, or right side, of the fabric. In some twill weave fabrics, the diagonal effect may also be seen clearly on the back side of the fabric.

Twist

A term that applies to the number of turns and the direction that two yarns are turned during the manufacturing process. The yarn twist brings the fibers close together and makes them compact. It helps the fibers adhere to one another, increasing yarn strength. The direction and amount of yarn twist helps determine appearance, performance, durability of both yarns and the subsequent fabric or textile product. Single yarns may be twisted to the right (S twist) or to the left (Z twist). Generally, woolen and worsted yarns are S-twist, while cotton and flax yarns are typically Z-twist.Twist is generally expressed as turns per inch (tpi), turns per meter (tpm), or turns per centimeter (tpc).

Tartan

Multicolored plaids originally made for Scottish clan kilts.

Tassel

Tassels come in all sizes, shapes and forms. A hanging ornament consisting of a head and a skirt of cut yarn, looped yarns or bullion fringe.

Tassel Trim

A plain or decorative gimp with attached tassels.

Ticking

A general term for a strong, durable, closely woven fabric in plain, twill or satin weave, which is used for covering box springs, mattresses and pillows.

Toile

A French word for cloth or fabric, linen, sailcloth, canvas. The linen or cotton cloth was made famous when a new technique of engraved plate printing was popularized in Jouy, France in the 18th Century. The finished printed cloth was referred to as Toile de Jouy. Today it usually describes a one color, fine line printed design that resembles a pen and ink technique. Toiles are printed by various methods, but the most beautiful are still created by engraved plates or rollers.

Tussah

A brownish silk yarn or fabric made from wild silk cocoons of a brownish color. These worms feed on leaves from various plants and trees such as oak, cherry, and wild mulberry

Tweed

A homespun effect created by multi or monochromatic colored yarns woven on plain looms. The fabric is usually wool or worsted and often has a rough texture.

Twill

This is a weave that creates a diagonal effect by having the warp float on top of a few weft yarns or vice versa. Generally three threads up and one down. Antique Twill is woven as a twill with a doupioni yarn, having slubs intermittently dispersed across the fabric.

Taffeta

A lustrous, medium weight, plain weave fabric with a slight ribbed appearance in the filling (crosswise) direction. For formal wear, taffeta is a favorite choice. It provides a crisp hand, with lots of body. Silk taffeta gives the ultimate rustle, but other fibers are also good choices.

Tape

Fabric sewn to a garment at the front edges, armholes, shoulder, neck, sideseams, vents, bottoms, gorge seams, etc. It is usually designed to prevent distortion of a fabric edge or seam.

Tapestry

A heavy, often hand-woven, ribbed fabric, featuring an elaborate design depicting a historical or current pictorial display. The weft-faced fabric design is made by using colored filling yarns, only in areas where needed, that are worked back and forth over spun warp yarns, which are visible on the back. End-uses include wall hangings and upholstery.

Tear Strength

The force necessary to tear a fabric, measured by the force necessary to start or continue a tear in a fabric. Expressed in pounds or in grams, the most commonly used method for determining the tear strength is the Elmendorf tear test procedure.

Tensile Strength (Breaking Stregth)

The strength shown by a fiber, yarn, or fabric to resist breaking under pressure. It is the actual number of pounds of resistance that a fabric will give before the material is broken on the testing machine.

Tension Control Weave

A type of decorative weave, characterized by a puckered effect which occurs because the tension in the warp yarns is intentionally varied before the filling yarns are placed in the fabric.

Terry Cloth

A typical uncut pile weave fabric. This fabric is formed by using two sets of warp yarns. One set of warp yarns is under very little tension; when the filling yarns are packed into place, these loose yarns are pushed backward along with the filling yarns, and loops are formed. Typical uses include towels, robes, and apparel.

Terry Velour

A pile weave cotton fabric with an uncut pile on one side and a cut pile on the reverse side. Terry velour is valued for its soft, luxurious hand. Typical uses include towels, robes, and apparel.

Textured Yarns

The yarns that result after undegoing the texturizing process, which can create crimping, looping, and otherwise modify the filament yarn for the purpose of increasing cover, abrasion resistance, insulation, warmth resilience, or moisture absorption, and to provide a different surface texture. When filament yarns are texturized, and then woven or knitted into fabrics, the result is that the finished fabric?s properties resemble a fabric that has been made from a spun yarn. Most of today's filament polyester is texturized.

Texturizing

A process performed on specialized machinery which create bulk, stretch to the yarn, and therefore creates new aesthetics to the finished fabric.

Thermal Insulation

The ability of a fabric to retain heat.

Thermoregulation

The ability to maintain a constant temperature independent of dynamic (changing) environmental conditions.

Thread Count

The number of ends and picks per inch in a woven cloth; the number of wales and courses per inch in a knit fabric. See "Count of Cloth".

Ticking

Compactly woven cotton cloth used for containers, covers for mattresses and pillows, sportswear (hickory stripes), institution fabric, and work clothes. It is striped cloth, usually white background with blue or brown stripes in the motif.

Ticking

A tightly woven, very durable fabric, usually made of cotton, and used for covering mattresses, box springs, pillows, and work clothes. The fabric can be made by using a plain, satin, or twill weave construction.

Tow

A large bundle of manufactured filament fiber as they are extruded from the spinerette, and before they have been cut into staple fibers.

Triacetate

A manufactured fiber, which like acetate, is made by modifying cellulose. However, even more acetate groups have been added to create this fiber. Triacetate is less absorbent and less sensitive to high temperatures than acetate. It can be hand or machine washed and tumble dried, with relatively good wrinkle recovery.

Tricot Knit

A warp knit fabric in which the fabric is formed by interlooping adjacent parallel yarns. The warp beam holds thousands of yards of yarns in a parallel arrangement, and these yarns are fed into the knitting area simultaneously. Sufficient yarns to produce the final fabric width and length are on the beam. Tricot knits are frequently used in women's lingerie items such as slips, bras, panties, and nightgowns.

Trim-cut

Tapered and tailored, or a form-fitting garment.

Trunk

Double the length of a coverall, from the center of the neckhole at the back to the point of the leg separation on the seat seam.

Tulle

A lightweight, extremely fine, machine-made netting, usually with a hexagon shaped mesh effect. End-uses include dance costumes and veils.

Turning

The reversing of two or more pieces of material that are seamed together for pressing or topstitching.

Tweed

A medium to heavy weight, fluffy, woolen, twill weave fabric containing colored slubbed yarns. Common end-uses include coats and suits.

Twill Weave

A basic weave in which the fabrics are constructed by interlacing warp and filling yarns in a progressive alternation which creates a diagonal effect on the face, or right side, of the fabric. In some twill weave fabrics, the diagonal effect may also be seen clearly on the back side of the fabric.

Twist

A term that applies to the number of turns and the direction that two yarns are turned during the manufacturing process. The yarn twist brings the fibers close together and makes them compact. It helps the fibers adhere to one another, increasing yarn strength. The direction and amount of yarn twist helps determine appearance, performance, durability of both yarns and the subsequent fabric or textile product. Single yarns may be twisted to the right (S twist) or to the left (Z twist). Generally, woolen and worsted yarns are S-twist, while cotton and flax yarns are typically Z-twist. Twist is generally expressed as turns per inch (tpi), turns per meter (tpm), or turns per centimeter (tpc).

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