Textile Dictionary-S

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 

Scouring

The treatment of textiles in aqueous or other solutions in order to remove natural fats, waxes, proteins and other constituents, as well as dirt, oil and other impurities.

Scrim

A fabric with an open or loose configuration of strands or filaments which can usually be easily seen through from a distance.

Seersucker

A fabric characterised by the presence of puckered areas contrasted by flat areas, usually in stripes along the length of the cloth.

Selvedge

The longitudinal edge of a fabric or a garment panel produced during knitting. The term can also be applied to fabric in which the yarn is cut rather than turned at the end of a course of loops.

Sandwash

The soft peachskin finish obtained by blasting a fabric with fine sand.

Sanforizing

A controlled compressive shrinkage process. The word Sanforized is a registered trade mark and can be used to describe fabrics which meet defined and approved standards of washing shrinkage

Satin Weave

A warp faced weave in which the binding places are arranged with a view to producing a smooth fabric surface, free from twill.

Shed

An opening formed during weaving by raising some warp threads and lowering others to facilitate the passage of a weft yarn or a weft carrying device across the weaving machine

Shedding

A motion in weaving whereby a shed is created to facilitate the passage of a weft yarn or a weft carrying device across the weaving machine.

Shepherd's Check

A small check effect in contrasting colours, often black and white

Shin Gosen

Fabrics made from ultra-fine polyester filament yarns with enhanced comfort, handle, drape and aesthetics. Shin gosen fabrics are designed specifically to appeal to end users by employing a combination of sophisticated fibre and fabric processing technologies.

Single Knitted Fabric

A fabric produced by knitting a single yarn continuously. In this type of fabric, the face and the back show different patterns.

Sirospun Yarns

Worsted ply yarns spun on a slightly modified ring-spinning frame, which creates the yarns directly from two rovings. In forming the yarns, the spinning frame twists the two rovings together, thereby holding the fibres in place. The process, developed in Australia, eliminates the step of forming two separate single yarns.

Sizing

A process in which size is applied to yarns (usually warp) before weaving to protect, strengthen and lubricate them during weaving. Sliver: An assemblage of fibres in continuous form without twist.

Slub Yarns

Yarns with a deliberately uneven surface Snarl yarns: Yarns which are so highly twisted that they curl back on themselves into knots and snarls, like twisted strands of elastic

Solvent Spinning

The process of dissolving and subsequently spinning a fibre or filament without the formation of an intermediate derivative

Space Dyed

A dyeing process in which yarn is coloured at intervals

Spin Drawing

A process for spinning partially or highly oriented filaments in which the spinning and drawing processes are integrated sequential stages. Most of the orientation in spin drawing is introduced between the first forwarding device and the take-up.

Spinneret

A nozzle or plate provided with fine holes or slits through which a fibre-forming solution or melt is extruded during fibre manufacture.

Spinning

The process used in the production of yarns or filaments

Spunbond

Nonwovens made from a continuous mat of randomly laid filaments. The filaments are bonded together by heat and pressure or needlepunching.

Spunlacing

A process for bonding a nonwoven fabric by using high pressure water jets to intermingle the fibres.

Spunmelt

A nonwoven structure made by extruding molten polymer through spinnerets to form fibres. Spunmelt processes are used in the manufacture of spunbond nonwovens, meltblown nonwovens and combinations of the two.

Stain Resistance

The ability of a fabric to withstand permanent discoloration by the action of liquids. This property depends partly upon the chemical nature of the fibre but may be improved by proprietary treatments.

Staple Fibre

short length fibres, as distinct from continuous filaments, which are twisted together (spun) to form a coherent yarn. Most natural fibres are staple fibres, the main exception being silk which is a filament yarn. Most man-made staple fibres are produced in this form by slicing up a tow of continuous filament.

Stitchbonding

A process in which a series of interlooped stitches are inserted along the length of a pre-formed fabric, an array of cross-laid yarns or a fibre web. Proprietary systems include Arachne, Malipol and Maliwatt.

Sueded Fabric

A fabric finished in such a way as to imitate suede leather.

Synthetic Fibre

A man-made fibre made from a polymer that has been produced artificially, in contrast to fibres made from naturally occurring polymers such as cellulose.

Sateen

An imitation fabric of satin with a lustrous surface and usually made of cotton.Satin:A glossy surface fabric with a dull back made for use for draperies and upholstery but not recommended for heavy usage.

Silk

Made from the silkworm silk takes dye superbly and produces iridescent colors but natural light can discolor easily. The texture of silk can vary depending on the quality.

Spun silk

Silk yarns that are made from damaged silk cocoons and mill waste. The result tends to have a heavier hand and is less lustrous than reeled silk.

Strie

This is cloth that resembles an uneven stripe or of having a streaked effect that is made by using threads of various colors.

Sailcloth

Any heavy, plain-weave canvas fabric, usually made of cotton, linen, polyester, jute, nylon, etc. that is used for sails and apparel (i.e. bottomweight sportswear).

Sanforized

Registered trademark of Cluett, Peabody & Co. for fabrics processed by machine so that residual shrinkage will not exceed 1% in either direction (according to the U.S.?s standard wash test CCC-T-191a),, despite repeated washings.

Saran Fiber

A manufactured fiber which has an excellent resistance to sunlight and weathering, and is used in lawn furniture, upholstery, and carpets.

Sateen Fabric

A fabric made from yarns with low luster, such as cotton or other staple length fibers. The fabric has a soft, smooth hand and a gentle, subtle luster. Sateen fabrics are often used for draperies and upholstery.

Sateen Weave

A variation of the satin weave, produced by floating fill yarns over warp yarns.

Satin Fabric

A traditional fabric utilizing a satin weave construction to achieve a lustrous fabric surface. Satin is a traditional fabric for evening and wedding garments. Typical examples of satin weave fabrics include: slipper satin, crepe-back satin, faille satin, bridal satin, moleskin, and antique satin.

Satin Weave

A basic weave, characterized by long floats of yarn on the face of the fabric. The yarns are interlaced in such a manner that there is no definite, visible pattern of interlacing and, in this manner, a smooth and somewhat shiny surface effect is achieved. The shiny surface effect is further increased through the use of high luster filament fibers in yarns which also have a low amount of twist. A true satin weave fabric always has the warp yarns floating over filling yarns.

Saxony

Originally a high grade coating fabric made from Saxony merino wool raised in Germany.

Schiffli Embroidery

Originated in Switzerland, the word, Schiffli, means "boat", identifiable with the boat-shaped shuttle used in the frame. The lace effect is made by embroidering the motifs on a net ground.

Seam (book/booking)

The raw edge hem done on a blindstitch machine, usually sewn in the side ans back seam outlets, and on the bottom turn-up.

Seam (french)

A closure between two pieces of material, made by stitching,turning, and restitching, so as to conceal all raw edges.

Seam (open gorge)

Both the collar and the facing are turned under, basted, and then the seam is felled (edges folded together) from the outside.

Seam (raised)

A seam resulting after two pieces of fabric have been joined; one piece is folded back, and a second row of stitching is placed adjacent to the folded edge.

Seamless Knitting

A unique process of circular knitting, done on either Santoni or Sangiacomo knitting machines. This circular knitting process essentially produces finished garments with no side seams, which require only minimal sewisng to complete the garment. Seamless knitting can transform yarn into complete garments in a fraction of the time it takes for traditional garment manufacturing, by minimizing the traditional labor-intensive steps of sutting and sewing

Seamless Technology

This term can refer to either "seamless knitting" (See Seamless Knitting), or "welding/bonding technology", which uses a bonding agent to attach two pieces of fabric together, and eliminates the need for sewing threads. (See welding.)

Seat

The circumference of a pant, measured perpendicular to the fly opening and from the base of the fly.

Seersucker

A woven fabric which incorporates modification of tension control. In the production of seersucker, some of the warp yarns are held under controlled tension at all times during the weaving, while other warp yarns are in a relaxed state and tend to pucker when the filling yarns are placed. The result produces a puckered stripe effect in the fabric. Seersucker is traditionally made into summer sportswear such as shirts, trousers, and informal suits.

Self-goods

When the same material is used as a pocket lining, or in a waistband, collar and fly construction. Also called shell.

Selvage or Selvedge

The thin compressed edge of a woven fabric which runs parallel to the warp yarns and prevents raveling. It is usually woven, utilizing tougher yarns and a tighter construction than the rest of the fabric.

Serge

A fabric with a smooth hand that is created by a two-up, two-down twill weave. Serging - An overcasting technique done on the cut edge of a fabric to prevent raveling.

Shantung

A medium-weight, plain weave fabric, characterized by a ribbed effect, resulting from slubbed yarns used in the warp or filling direction. End-uses include dresses and suits.

Sharkskin

A hard-finished, low lustered, medium-weight fabric in a twill-weave construction. It is most commonly found in men's worsted suitings; however, it can also be found in a plain-weave construction of acetate, triacetate, and rayon for women's sportswear.

Shell

A fabric from which the garment is made.

Shuttle

The boat-like devise on weaving machines, which carries the filling yarn wound on the bobbin. The shuttle moves from the shuttle box on one side of the loom, through the shed, and onto the shuttle box at the other side of the loom. Opening - An opening created by the facing tacked onto the swing pockets. It allows the wearer access to his trouser pockets. Typically found on coveralls.

Silk

A natural filament fiber produced by the silkworm in the construction of its cocoon. Most silk is collected from cultivated worms; Tussah silk, or wild silk, is a thicker, shorter fiber produced by worms in their natural habitat. All silk comes from Asia, primarily China.

Singeing

Process of burning off protruding fibers from fabrics to give the fabric a smooth surface.

Sisal

A strong bast fiber that originates from the leaves of the Agave plant, which is found in the West Indies, Central America, and Africa. End-uses include cordage and twine.

Sizing

The application of a size mixture to warp yarn. The purpose of this is to make the yarn smoother and stronger to withstand the strain of weaving, to provide an acceptable hand in the woven gray goods, and to increase fabric weight.

Sleeve Length

The sleeves measured from the center of the neckline in the back to the end of the sleeve or cuff.

Sleeve Tacking

Stitches whizh attach the sleeve to the lining along the sleeve inseams and elbow seams.

Sleeve Vent

A finished slit or opening in the sleeve. Vents are usually secured by snaps or buttons at the base of the cuff.

Sliver

A continuous bundle of loosely assembled untwisted fibers. These are fibers that are drawn from the card by the drawing frames, and are eventually twisted into a yarn during the sliver knitting process.

Sliver Knitting

A type of circular knitting in which a high pile fabric is knitted by the drawing-in of the sliver by the knitting needles.

Smart Textiles

Textiles that can sense and react to changes in the environment, such as changes from mechanical , thermal, chemical, magnetic and other sources.

Soft Shell

Soft shell fabrics combine the benefits of hard shell fabrics with a breathable, flexible, comfortable fabric. Stretch wovens with a DWR treatment.

Soilase Rele

A finish that has the purpose of increasing the absorbency of a fabric. on durable press blends. The finish allows the stain to leave the fabric faster, increases the wicking action for improved comfort, and therefore imparts greater ease in cleaning. Some soil release finishes also provide resistance to soiling as well as ease of soil removal.

Solution-dyed

A type of fiber dyeing in which colored pigments are injected into the spinning solution prior to the extrusion of the fiber through the spinneret. Fibers and yarns colored in this manner are color-fast to most destructive agents.

Spacer Fabric

Two separate fabrics faces knitted independently and then connected by a separate spacer yarn. These fabrics can be produced on both circular and flat knitting machines. Spacer fabrics have the properties of good breathability, crush resistance, and a 3D appearance.

Spandex Fiber

A manufactured elastomeric fiber that can be repeatedly stretched over 500% without breaking, and will still recover to its original length.

SPF (Sun Protection Factor)

SPF measures the effectiveness of sunscreen on the body. the test for SPF is done by using a living organism or body to measure the length of time it takes for the skin to redden without coverage or protection.

Spinneret

A metal nozzle type device with very fine holes used in the spinning process of manufactured fibers. The spinning solution is forced or extruded through the small holes to form continuous filament fibers. The holes in the spinneret can vary in diameter to produce fibers of various denier.

Spinning

This final operation in the production of a natural yarn, consists of of the drawing, twisting, and the winding of the newly spun yarn onto a device such as a bobbin, spindle, cop, tube, cheese, etc. In manufactured fibers, the spinning process is the extrusion of a spinning solution into a coagulation bath, a heated air chamber, or a cooling area in order to form a continuous filament or tow.

Sponging

A pre-shrinkage process which involves the dampening with a sponge to woolen and worsted fabrics. The process is accomplished by rolling in moist muslin, or by steaming. This procedure is performed at the fabric mill prior to cutting to insure against a contraction of the material in the garment.

Spot Weave

A woven construction in which patterns are built in at spaced intervals through the use of extra warp and/or extra fill yarns are placed in selected areas. These yarns are woven into the fabric by means of a dobby or Jacquard attachment.

Spun Yarn

A yarn made by taking a group of short staple fibers, which have been cut from the longer continuous filament fibers, and then twisting these short staple fibers together to form a single yarn, which is then used for weaving or knitting fabrics

Stain Repellent

The ability of a fabric to resist wetting and staining by water.

Stain Resistance

A fiber or fabric property of resisting spots and stains.

Staple Fibers

Short fibers, typically ranging from 1/2 inch up to 18 inches long. Wool, cotton, and flax exist only as staple fibers. Manufactured staple fibers are cut to a specific length from the continuous filament fiber. Usually the staple fiber is cut in lengths ranging from 1-1/2 inches to 8 inches long. A group of staple fibers are twisted together to form a yarn, which is then woven or knit into fabrics.

Stay

A piece of fabric used to hold another piece of fabric in place, or to add strength to a seam or tack.

Stitch (Backstitch)

Used at the beginning and end of stitching to reinforce and prevent raveling. Also called backtack or stay-stitch.

Stitch (Baste)

A stitching which holds the fabric in place until permanent stitching has been completed. Stitch (Blind) - A stich that is not visible on one side of the fabric.

Stitch (Chain/Class 100)

A stitch formed with one or more needle threads, the look=ps of which are passed through the material and through the loops of the preceding threads.

Stitch (Contrasting)

When the stitching thread contrasts the garment color.

Stitch

A stitch formed with two or more groups of threads that interlace each other. The loops of needle thread are passed through the material where they are secured by looper threads; no bobbins used. This stitching ravels in one direction.

Stitch (Flat seam/class 600)

Multi-needle stitches that provide the elasticity necessary for knits

Stitch (hand/class 200)

A stitch formed by hand with one or more needles---one thread per needle passing in and out of the material.

Stitch (Lock/class 300)

A stitch formed with two or more groups of threads that interface each other. The loops of needle threads are passed through the material where they are secured by bobbin threads

Stitch (overedge/class 500)

A stitch formed with one or more groups of threads at least one of which passes around the edge of the material.

Stitch (safety)

A combination chain-stitch and overedge stitch made simultaneously on the same sewing machine.

Stitch (Top)

A second row of stitching close to the edge of a seam, after two or more pieces of fabric have been sewed together and turned to bury the raw seam margin side.

Stitch (Zig-zag)

A stitch made on a sewing machine in which the needle bar comes down alternately on the right and left side of an imaginary center line. Also refers to the type of machine producing this stitch.

Storm Shell

Wind proof, wind resistant outerwear.

Stretch Yarns

Continuous filament synthetic yarns that have been altered through special treatments or modification to give them elasticity. Techniques include: twisting and untwisting, use of air jets, stuffer boxes, knife blades, crimping, heat setting, curling, steaming, or looping. Use of these yarns gives fabrics a degree of elasticity and comfort.

Substrate

Fabric on which coatings or other fabrics are applied; a support.

Super Light Weight

Term used to describe a fabric used in outerwear, which allows for a minimum pack volume and weight. These lightweight, packable garments offer the most versatile weather protection. Some of these fabrics have a protection layer on the membrane, which provides durability. This means that the garments made from the extra lightweight fabrics need no separate lining.

Surah

A light weight, lustrous twill weave constructed fabric with a silk-like hand. Surah is the fabric of ties, dresses, and furnishings. It is available in silk, polyester, and rayon.

Satin

This weave is usually made with 5, 8 or 10 shafts that have the warp yarn floating again. The weave produces a fabric with a characteristic smooth surface and high luster. Weft or filler satins are usually referred to as sateen

Selvage

The edge on either side of a woven or flat-knitted fabric, often of different threads and/or weave, so finished to prevent raveling.

Shantung

A lightweight silk cloth woven in a plain weave with doupioni yarn.

Sheer

A very thin, transparent or semi opaque fabric.

Silk

A natural protein fiber produced from the cocoon of wild or cultivated silkworms.

Skirt

Drop The measurement from the box spring to the floor.

Super King

A term used for Eastern Accents extra large king duvet. The Super King Duvet is recommended for a king bed with a pillow-top mattress.

Super Queen

A term used for Eastern Accents extra large queen duvet. The Super Queen Duvet is recommended for a queen bed with a pillow-top mattress.

Sailcloth

Any heavy, plain-weave canvas fabric, usually made of cotton, linen, polyester, jute, nylon, etc. that is used for sails and apparel (i.e. bottomweight sportswear).

Sanforized

Registered trademark of Cluett, Peabody & Co. for fabrics processed by machine so that residual shrinkage will not exceed 1% in either direction (according to the U.S.?s standard wash test CCC-T-191a),, despite repeated washings.

Saran Fiber

A manufactured fiber which has an excellent resistance to sunlight and weathering, and is used in lawn furniture, upholstery, and carpets.

Sateen Fabric

A fabric made from yarns with low luster, such as cotton or other staple length fibers. The fabric has a soft, smooth hand and a gentle, subtle luster. Sateen fabrics are often used for draperies and upholstery.

Sateen Weave

A variation of the satin weave, produced by floating fill yarns over warp yarns.

Satin Fabric

A traditional fabric utilizing a satin weave construction to achieve a lustrous fabric surface. Satin is a traditional fabric for evening and wedding garments. Typical examples of satin weave fabrics include: slipper satin, crepe-back satin, faille satin, bridal satin, moleskin, and antique satin.

Satin Weave

A basic weave, characterized by long floats of yarn on the face of the fabric. The yarns are interlaced in such a manner that there is no definite, visible pattern of interlacing and, in this manner, a smooth and somewhat shiny surface effect is achieved. The shiny surface effect is further increased through the use of high luster filament fibers in yarns which also have a low amount of twist. A true satin weave fabric always has the warp yarns floating over filling yarns.

Saxony

Originally a high grade coating fabric made from Saxony merino wool raised in Germany.

Schiffli Embroidery

Originated in Switzerland, the word, Schiffli, means "boat", identifiable with the boat-shaped shuttle used in the frame. The lace effect is made by embroidering the motifs on a net ground.

Seam (book/booking)

The raw edge hem done on a blindstitch machine, usually sewn in the side ans back seam outlets, and on the bottom turn-up.(french)- A closure between two pieces of material, made by stitching,turning, and restitching, so as to conceal all raw edges.

Seam (open gorge)

Both the collar and the facing are turned under, basted, and then the seam is felled (edges folded together) from the outside.

Seam (raised)

A seam resulting after two pieces of fabric have been joined; one piece is folded back, and a second row of stitching is placed adjacent to the folded edge.

Seamless Knitting

A unique process of circular knitting, done on either Santoni or Sangiacomo knitting machines. This circular knitting process essentially produces finished garments with no side seams, which require only minimal sewisng to complete the garment. Seamless knitting can transform yarn into complete garments in a fraction of the time it takes for traditional garment manufacturing, by minimizing the traditional labor-intensive steps of sutting and sewing.

Seamless Technology

This term can refer to either "seamless knitting" (See Seamless Knitting), or "welding/bonding technology", which uses a bonding agent to attach two pieces of fabric together, and eliminates the need for sewing threads.

Seat

The circumference of a pant, measured perpendicular to the fly opening and from the base of the fly.

Seersucker

A woven fabric which incorporates modification of tension control. In the production of seersucker, some of the warp yarns are held under controlled tension at all times during the weaving, while other warp yarns are in a relaxed state and tend to pucker when the filling yarns are placed. The result produces a puckered stripe effect in the fabric. Seersucker is traditionally made into summer sportswear such as shirts, trousers, and informal suits.

Self-goods

When the same material is used as a pocket lining, or in a waistband, collar and fly construction. Also called shell.

Selvage or Selvedge

The thin compressed edge of a woven fabric which runs parallel to the warp yarns and prevents raveling. It is usually woven, utilizing tougher yarns and a tighter construction than the rest of the fabric.

Serge

A fabric with a smooth hand that is created by a two-up, two-down twill weave.

Serging

An overcasting technique done on the cut edge of a fabric to prevent raveling.

Shantung

A medium-weight, plain weave fabric, characterized by a ribbed effect, resulting from slubbed yarns used in the warp or filling direction. End-uses include dresses and suits.

Sharkskin

A hard-finished, low lustered, medium-weight fabric in a twill-weave construction. It is most commonly found in men's worsted suitings; however, it can also be found in a plain-weave construction of acetate, triacetate, and rayon for women's sportswear.

Shell

A fabric from which the garment is made.

Shuttle

The boat-like devise on weaving machines, which carries the filling yarn wound on the bobbin. The shuttle moves from the shuttle box on one side of the loom, through the shed, and onto the shuttle box at the other side of the loom.

Side Opening

An opening created by the facing tacked onto the swing pockets. It allows the wearer access to his trouser pockets. Typically found on coveralls.

Silk

A natural filament fiber produced by the silkworm in the construction of its cocoon. Most silk is collected from cultivated worms; Tussah silk, or wild silk, is a thicker, shorter fiber produced by worms in their natural habitat. All silk comes from Asia, primarily China.

Singeing

Process of burning off protruding fibers from fabrics to give the fabric a smooth surface.

Sisal

strong bast fiber that originates from the leaves of the Agave plant, which is found in the West Indies, Central America, and Africa. End-uses include cordage and twine.

Sizing

The application of a size mixture to warp yarn. The purpose of this is to make the yarn smoother and stronger to withstand the strain of weaving, to provide an acceptable hand in the woven gray goods, and to increase fabric weight.

Sleeve Length

The sleeves measured from the center of the neckline in the back to the end of the sleeve or cuff.

Sleeve Tacking

Stitches which attach the sleeve to the lining along the sleeve inseams and elbow seams.

Sleeve Vent

A finished slit or opening in the sleeve. Vents are usually secured by snaps or buttons at the base of the cuff.

Sliver

A continuous bundle of loosely assembled untwisted fibers. These are fibers that are drawn from the card by the drawing frames, and are eventually twisted into a yarn during the sliver knitting process.

Sliver Knitting

A type of circular knitting in which a high pile fabric is knitted by the drawing-in of the sliver by the knitting needles.

Smart Textiles

Textiles that can sense and react to changes in the environment, such as changes from mechanical , thermal, chemical, magnetic and other sources.

Soft Shell

Soft shell fabrics combine the benefits of hard shell fabrics with a breathable, flexible, comfortable fabric. Stretch wovens with a DWR treatment.

Soil Release

A finish that has the purpose of increasing the absorbency of a fabric. on durable press blends. The finish allows the stain to leave the fabric faster, increases the wicking action for improved comfort, and therefore imparts greater ease in cleaning. Some soil release finishes also provide resistance to soiling as well as ease of soil removal.

Solution-dyed

A type of fiber dyeing in which colored pigments are injected into the spinning solution prior to the extrusion of the fiber through the spinneret. Fibers and yarns colored in this manner are color-fast to most destructive agents.

Spacer Fabric

Two separate fabrics faces knitted independently and then connected by a separate spacer yarn. These fabrics can be produced on both circular and flat knitting machines. Spacer fabrics have the properties of good breathability, crush resistance, and a 3D appearance.

Spandex Fiber

A manufactured elastomeric fiber that can be repeatedly stretched over 500% without breaking, and will still recover to its original length.

SPF (Sun Protection Factor)

SPF measures the effectiveness of sunscreen on the body. the test for SPF is done by using a living organism or body to measure the length of time it takes for the skin to redden without coverage or protection.

Spinneret

A metal nozzle type device with very fine holes used in the spinning process of manufactured fibers. The spinning solution is forced or extruded through the small holes to form continuous filament fibers. The holes in the spinneret can vary in diameter to produce fibers of various denier.

Spinning

This final operation in the production of a natural yarn, consists of of the drawing, twisting, and the winding of the newly spun yarn onto a device such as a bobbin, spindle, cop, tube, cheese, etc. In manufactured fibers, the spinning process is the extrusion of a spinning solution into a coagulation bath, a heated air chamber, or a cooling area in order to form a continuous filament or tow.

Sponging

A pre-shrinkage process which involves the dampening with a sponge to woolen and worsted fabrics. The process is accomplished by rolling in moist muslin, or by steaming. This procedure is performed at the fabric mill prior to cutting to insure against a contraction of the material in the garment.

Spot Weave

A woven construction in which patterns are built in at spaced intervals through the use of extra warp and/or extra fill yarns are placed in selected areas. These yarns are woven into the fabric by means of a dobby or Jacquard attachment.

Spun Yarn

A yarn made by taking a group of short staple fibers, which have been cut from the longer continuous filament fibers, and then twisting these short staple fibers together to form a single yarn, which is then used for weaving or knitting fabrics.

Stain Repellent

The ability of a fabric to resist wetting and staining by water.

Stain Resistance

A fiber or fabric property of resisting spots and stains.

Staple Fibers-

Short fibers, typically ranging from 1/2 inch up to 18 inches long. Wool, cotton, and flax exist only as staple fibers. Manufactured staple fibers are cut to a specific length from the continuous filament fiber. Usually the staple fiber is cut in lengths ranging from 1-1/2 inches to 8 inches long. A group of staple fibers are twisted together to form a yarn, which is then woven or knit into fabrics.

Stay

A piece of fabric used to hold another piece of fabric in place, or to add strength to a seam or tack.

Stitch (Backstitch)

Used at the beginning and end of stitching to reinforce and prevent raveling. Also called backtack or stay-stitch.

Stitch (Baste)

A stitching which holds the fabric in place until permanent stitching has been completed.

Stitch (Blind)

A stich that is not visible on one side of the fabric.

Stitch (Chain/Class 100)

A stitch formed with one or more needle threads, the look=ps of which are passed through the material and through the loops of the preceding threads.

Stitch (Contrasting)

When the stitching thread contrasts the garment color.

Stitch (Dbl. lock/class 400)

A stitch formed with two or more groups of threads that interlace each other. The loops of needle thread are passed through the material where they are secured by looper threads; no bobbins used. This stitching ravels in one direction.

Stitch (Flat seam/class 600)

Multi-needle stitches that provide the elasticity necessary for knits.

Stitch (hand/class 200)

A stitch formed by hand with one or more needles---one thread per needle passing in and out of the material.

Stitch (Lock/class 300)

A stitch formed with two or more groups of threads that interface each other. The loops of needle threads are passed through the material where they are secured by bobbin threads.

Stitch (overedge/class 500)

A stitch formed with one or more groups of threads at least one of which passes around the edge of the material.

Stitch (safety)

A combination chain-stitch and overedge stitch made simultaneously on the same sewing machine.

Stitch (Top)

A second row of stitching close to the edge of a seam, after two or more pieces of fabric have been sewed together and turned to bury the raw seam margin side.

Stitch (Zig-zag)

A stitch made on a sewing machine in which the needle bar comes down alternately on the right and left side of an imaginary center line. Also refers to the type of machine producing this stitch.

Storm Shell

Wind proof, wind resistant outerwear.

Stretch Yarns

Continuous filament synthetic yarns that have been altered through special treatments or modification to give them elasticity. Techniques include: twisting and untwisting, use of air jets, stuffer boxes, knife blades, crimping, heat setting, curling, steaming, or looping. Use of these yarns gives fabrics a degree of elasticity and comfort.

Substrate

Fabric on which coatings or other fabrics are applied; a support.

Super Light Weight

Term used to describe a fabric used in outerwear, which allows for a minimum pack volume and weight. These lightweight, packable garments offer the most versatile weather protection. Some of these fabrics have a protection layer on the membrane, which provides durability. This means that the garments made from the extra lightweight fabrics need no separate lining.

Surah

A light weight, lustrous twill weave constructed fabric with a silk-like hand. Surah is the fabric of ties, dresses, and furnishings. It is available in silk, polyester, and rayon.
 

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