Textile Dictionary-P

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 

Polar Fleece

A fleece-back jersey fabric.

Polynosic

A type of cellulosic fibre characterised by a high wet modulus of elasticity. When sanded or raised, fabrics made from this fibre have the soft, peachskin surface found in washed silks

Pongee

A lustrous lightweight plain-weave fabric, originally woven in silk

Popcorn

A fabric which has undergone a special finishing technique to give it a texture resembling fluffy kernels of popcorn.

Poplin

A plain-weave cotton-type fabric with weftways ribs and a high warp sett.

Prince of Wales

A large-scale check, typified by a reversing effect ground with an overcheck.

Peachskin

The term used to describe the soft surface of certain textiles which feels like, and has the appearance of, the skin of a peach.

Permeability

The ability of a textile to allow air or water vapour to pass through it

Pigment Dyeing

A process used to give garments a characteristic "washed out" or weathered look, while offering good light- and wash-fastness and reasonable crocking (wet-rub) resistance.

Pima

A type of long-staple cotton.

Piqué

A woven cloth showing rounded cords in the weft direction with sunken lines between them.

Plating

A process for making a knitted fabric from two yarns of different properties-one on the face of the fabric, the other on the back.

Ply

The number of layers in a fabric. Also used to denote the number of yarns twisted together to form a single thread or yarn.

Push-pull Fabrics

Bicomponent fabrics composed of a non-absorbent hydrophobic material, usually polyester, on the inside (worn next to the skin) and an absorbent hydrophilic material, usually nylon, on the outside.

Paisley

A tear-drop shaped, fancy printed pattern, used in dresses, blouses, and men's ties.

Panné Velvet

A type of lustrous, lightweight velvet fabric, usually made of silk or a manufactured fiber, in which the pile has been flattened in one direction.

Parachute Fabric

A compactly woven, lightweight fabric comparable with airplane cloth. It is made of silk, nylon, rayon, cotton, or polyester.

Peau de Soie

A heavy twill weave drapeable satin fabric, made of silk or a manufactured fiber, and used for bridal gowns and eveningwear.

Percale

A medium weight, plain weave, low to medium count (180 to 250 threads per square inch) cotton-like fabric. End-uses include sheets, blouses, and dresses.

Performance Fabrics

Fabrics made for a variety of end-use applications, which provide functional qualitites, such as moisture management, UV protection, anti-microbial, thermo-regulation, and wind/water resistance.

Permanent Press (Durable Press)

Terms used to describe a garment which has been treated to retain its fresh appearance, crease, and shape throughout the life of the garment, Permanent press can be a misleading description, because no finish is completely permanent. Durable press or crease resistant are the more accepted terms, and are the ones approved by the Federal Trade Commission.

Permeability

A textile characteristic which allows air, water, and water vapor to penetrate and pass through it.

Perspiration Resistant

A treatment on a fabric which allows a fabric or a dye to resist perspiration.

Phase Change Materials

A hydrophilic compound applied to a fiber or fabric which results in superior breathability and a moisture management system within the fabric that helps to maintain a comfortable body temperature when the garment is worn.

Pick

A filling yarn that runs crosswise between selveges in woven goods. The pick intersects with the warp (or lengthwise yarn) to form a woven cloth.

Pile Fabric

A fabric in which certain yarns project from a foundation texture and form a pile on the surface. Pile yarns may be cut or uncut in the fabric. Corduroy and velveteen are examples of cut filling pile fabrics.

Pile Knit

A type of knit construction which utilizes a special yarn or a sliver that is interlooped into a standard knit base. This construction is used in the formation of imitation fur fabrics, in special liners for cold weather apparel such as jackets and coats, and in some floor coverings. While any basic knit stitch may be used for the base of pile knits, the most common is the jersey stitch.

Pile Weave

A type of decorative weave in which a pile is formed by additional warp or filling yarns interlaced in such a way that loops are formed on the surface or face of the fabric. The loops may be left uncut, or they may be cut to expose yarn ends and produce cut pile fabric.

Pill

A tangled ball of fibers that appears on the surface of a fabric, as a result of wear or continued friction or rubbing on the surface of the fabric.

Piping

A narrow tape used to bind seams, or used for decoration. Pique - A knitted fabric that resembles a lightweight Bedford cord, with the wales or cords running in the warpwise or lengthwise direction.

Piqué

A medium-weight fabric, either knit or woven, with raised dobby designs including cords, wales, waffles, or patterns. Woven versions have cords running lengthwise, or in the warp direction. Knitted versions are double-knit fabric constructions, created on multi-feed circular knitting machines.

Plaid

A pattern consisting of colored bars or stripes which cross each other at right angles, comparable with a Scottish tartan.

Plain Edge (Bluff Edge)

A construction in which the edges of the garment are not stitched.

Plain Weave

A basic weave, utilizing a simple alternate interlacing of warp and filling yarns. Any type of yarn made from any type of fiber can be manufactured into a plain weave fabric.

Plaited Fabric

A narrow fabric made by crossing a number of sturdy yarns diagonally, so each strand passes alternatively over or under one or more of the other stands. Typically used in shoe laces and suspenders.

Plaited Yarn

A yarn covered by another yarn.

Pleats

A portion of the fabric folded over, and secured by stitching or pressing. Plied Yarn - A twisting together of two or more single yarns in one operation.

Plissé

A lightweight, plain weave, fabric, made from cotton, rayon, or acetate, and characterized by a puckered striped effect, usually in the warp direction. The crinkled effect is created through the application of a caustic soda solution, which shrinks the fabric in the areas of the fabric where it is applied. Plissé is similar in appearance to seersucker. End-uses include dresses, shirtings, pajamas, and bedspreads.

Ply

Two or more yarns that have been twisted together. An automobile tire fabric yarn may be 9, 10, or 11 ply.

Pocket (patch)

A pocket attached to the outside of the garment and constructed of self-fabric.

Pocket (quarter)

The angle from the side seam.

Pocket (rule)

A patch pocket attached on the outseam, halfway betweeen the hip and the knee of the garment; usually found on coveralls.

Pocket (serged)

A pocket formed by joining two pieces of fabric and joining the edges with safety-stitching.

Pocket (slash)

A pocket that must be entered through a slash on the garment. The pocket pouch is suspended from and attached to the slash.

Pocket (stitch and turn)

Formed when two pieces of fabric are joined along the edges and turned so that the raw seam margin is inside of the finished pocket.

Pocket (stitched/topstitched)

The same as stitch and turn pocket, except with an added row of stitching along the folded edges.

Pocket (swing)

The pocket pouch is suspended from and attached to the pocket opening.

Pocket Facing

A piece of shell (outer) material super-imposed on the top of the pocket material at its opening to conceal the lining.

Polyester

A manufactured fiber introduced in the early 1950s, and is second only to cotton in worldwide use. Polyester has high strength (although somewhat lower than nylon), excellent resiliency, and high abrasion resistance. Low absorbency allows the fiber to dry quickly.

Polymer

A high molecular weight structure, which makes up the substance from which manufactured fibers are produced. The fiber is created by linking together the chain-like molecular units called monomers.

Polypropylene (Olefin or Polyolefin

A manufactured fiber characterized by its light weight, high strength, and abrasion resistance. Polypropylene is also good at transporting moisture, creating a wicking action. End-uses include activewear apparel, rope, indoor-outdoor carpets, lawn furniture, and upholstery.

Pongee

The most common form is a naturally colored lightweight, plain weave, silk-like fabric with a slubbed effect. End-uses include blouses, dresses, etc.

Ponte di Roma

A fabric made in a double knit construction, usually produced in one color rather than color patterns. This plain fabric has an elastic quality with a slight horizontal line. The fabric looks the same on both sides.

Poplin

A fabric made using a rib variation of the plain weave. The construction is characterized by having a slight ridge effect in one direction, usually the filling. Poplin used to be associated with casual clothing, but as the "world of work" has become more relaxed, this fabric has developed into a staple of men's wardrobes, being used frequently in casual trousers.

Post-Cure

A type of durable press finish in which the finish is applied to the fabric by the mill, but the garment manufacturer completes the cure of the finish by applying heat, using an oven, or press, or both to the completed garment.

Pre-Cure

A finishing treatment in which the durable press finish is applied to the fabric and set, or cured, through the use of heat at the mill, prior to shipment of the fabric to the garment manufacturer.

Pre-Shrunk

Fabrics which have received a treatment, which causes shrinking. Often done on cottons before cutting the fabric in order to remove the tendency for shrinkage in the finished garment. The percent of residual shrinkage must be indicated on the label of the treated goods or garments.

Press

1A device that uses heat and pressure to remove wrinkles and creases and smooth fabrics during garment construction. 2. A device used to press or compress raw materials. 3. To iron in the home or commercial laundry. 4. To squeeze liquid out of a fabric through the use of roller presses.

PTFE Fabric

A fabric made from Polytetrafluoroethylene, such as Gore-Tex.

Pucker

The uneven surface caused by differential shrinkage in the two layers of a bonded fabric during processing, dry cleaning, or washing.

Purl Stitch

A basic stitch used in weft knitting, which produces knit fabrics that have the same appearance on both sides. The purl stitch is frequently used in combination with the jersey and rib stitches to produce a knitted fabric design. Sweaters, knitted fabrics for infants and children's wear, knitted fabrics for specialized sportswear, and bulky knit fabrics are commonly made using the purl stitch.

Pellon

A non-woven fabric that is used as an interfacing to shape, support and/or stabilize areas of a product.

Percale

A fine, plain-woven cloth of closely set combed and carded long staple cotton.

Piece dyeing

A process of dyeing fabric in the piece (bolt).

Pigment

An insoluble powdered coloring agent carried in a liquid binder and printed or padded onto the surface of a cloth.

Pile

Raised loops, cut interlacings of double cloths or tufts (cut loops) and other erect yarns or fibers deliberately produced on cloth, which form all or part of the surface of the fabric.

Pill

A fuzzy ball caused by the rolling up of abraded surface fibers.

Pique

Fabric has an embossed appearance created by weaving ribbed, waffle or honeycomb patterns.

Ply

The number of yarns twisted together to make a composite yarn.

Polyester

A generic term for a manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is a long chain synthetic polymer composed of a complex ester.

Paisley

A tear-drop shaped, fancy printed pattern, used in dresses, blouses, and men's ties.

Panné Velvet

A type of lustrous, lightweight velvet fabric, usually made of silk or a manufactured fiber, in which the pile has been flattened in one direction.

Parachute Fabric

A compactly woven, lightweight fabric comparable with airplane cloth. It is made of silk, nylon, rayon, cotton, or polyester.

Peau de Soie

A heavy twill weave drapeable satin fabric, made of silk or a manufactured fiber, and used for bridal gowns and eveningwear.

Percale

A medium weight, plain weave, low to medium count (180 to 250 threads per square inch) cotton-like fabric. End-uses include sheets, blouses, and dresses.

Performance Fabrics

Fabrics made for a variety of end-use applications, which provide functional qualitites, such as moisture management, UV protection, anti-microbial, thermo-regulation, and wind/water resistance.

Permanent Press (Durable Press)

Terms used to describe a garment which has been treated to retain its fresh appearance, crease, and shape throughout the life of the garment, Permanent press can be a misleading description, because no finish is completely permanent. Durable press or crease resistant are the more accepted terms, and are the ones approved by the Federal Trade Commission.

Permeability

A textile characteristic which allows air, water, and water vapor to penetrate and pass through it.

Perspiration Resistant

A treatment on a fabric which allows a fabric or a dye to resist perspiration.

Phase Change Materials

A hydrophilic compound applied to a fiber or fabric which results in superior breathability and a moisture management system within the fabric that helps to maintain a comfortable body temperature when the garment is worn.

Pick

A filling yarn that runs crosswise between selveges in woven goods. The pick intersects with the warp (or lengthwise yarn) to form a woven cloth.

Pile Fabric

A fabric in which certain yarns project from a foundation texture and form a pile on the surface. Pile yarns may be cut or uncut in the fabric. Corduroy and velveteen are examples of cut filling pile fabrics.

Pile Knit

A type of knit construction which utilizes a special yarn or a sliver that is interlooped into a standard knit base. This construction is used in the formation of imitation fur fabrics, in special liners for cold weather apparel such as jackets and coats, and in some floor coverings. While any basic knit stitch may be used for the base of pile knits, the most common is the jersey stitch.

Pile Weave

A type of decorative weave in which a pile is formed by additional warp or filling yarns interlaced in such a way that loops are formed on the surface or face of the fabric. The loops may be left uncut, or they may be cut to expose yarn ends and produce cut pile fabric.

Pill

A tangled ball of fibers that appears on the surface of a fabric, as a result of wear or continued friction or rubbing on the surface of the fabric.

Piping

A narrow tape used to bind seams, or used for decoration.

Pique

A knitted fabric that resembles a lightweight Bedford cord, with the wales or cords running in the warpwise or lengthwise direction.

Piqué

A medium-weight fabric, either knit or woven, with raised dobby designs including cords, wales, waffles, or patterns. Woven versions have cords running lengthwise, or in the warp direction. Knitted versions are double-knit fabric constructions, created on multi-feed circular knitting machines.

Plaid

A pattern consisting of colored bars or stripes which cross each other at right angles, comparable with a Scottish tartan.

Plain Edge (Bluff Edge)

A construction in which the edges of the garment are not stitched.

Plain Weave

A basic weave, utilizing a simple alternate interlacing of warp and filling yarns. Any type of yarn made from any type of fiber can be manufactured into a plain weave fabric.

Plaited Fabric

A narrow fabric made by crossing a number of sturdy yarns diagonally, so each strand passes alternatively over or under one or more of the other stands. Typically used in shoe laces and suspenders.Plaited Yarn- A yarn covered by another yarn.

Pleats

A portion of the fabric folded over, and secured by stitching or pressing.Plied Yarn- A twisting together of two or more single yarns in one operation.

Plissé

A lightweight, plain weave, fabric, made from cotton, rayon, or acetate, and characterized by a puckered striped effect, usually in the warp direction. The crinkled effect is created through the application of a caustic soda solution, which shrinks the fabric in the areas of the fabric where it is applied. Plissé is similar in appearance to seersucker. End-uses include dresses, shirtings, pajamas, and bedspreads.

Ply

Two or more yarns that have been twisted together. An automobile tire fabric yarn may be 9, 10, or 11 ply.

Pocket (patch)

A pocket attached to the outside of the garment and constructed of self-fabric.Pocket (quarter)- The angle from the side seam.

Pocket (rule)

A patch pocket attached on the outseam, halfway betweeen the hip and the knee of the garment; usually found on coveralls.

Pocket (serged)

A pocket formed by joining two pieces of fabric and joining the edges with safety-stitching.

Pocket (slash)

A pocket that must be entered through a slash on the garment. The pocket pouch is suspended from and attached to the slash.

Pocket (stitch and turn)

Formed when two pieces of fabric are joined along the edges and turned so that the raw seam margin is inside of the finished pocket.

Pocket (stitched/topstitched)

The same as stitch and turn pocket, except with an added row of stitching along the folded edges.

Pocket (swing)

The pocket pouch is suspended from and attached to the pocket opening.

Pocket Facing

A piece of shell (outer) material super-imposed on the top of the pocket material at its opening to conceal the lining.

Polyester

A manufactured fiber introduced in the early 1950s, and is second only to cotton in worldwide use. Polyester has high strength (although somewhat lower than nylon), excellent resiliency, and high abrasion resistance. Low absorbency allows the fiber to dry quickly.

Polymer

A high molecular weight structure, which makes up the substance from which manufactured fibers are produced. The fiber is created by linking together the chain-like molecular units called monomers.

Polypropylene (Olefin or Polyolefin)

A manufactured fiber characterized by its light weight, high strength, and abrasion resistance. Polypropylene is also good at transporting moisture, creating a wicking action. End-uses include activewear apparel, rope, indoor-outdoor carpets, lawn furniture, and upholstery.

Pongee

The most common form is a naturally colored lightweight, plain weave, silk-like fabric with a slubbed effect. End-uses include blouses, dresses, etc.

Ponte di Roma

A fabric made in a double knit construction, usually produced in one color rather than color patterns. This plain fabric has an elastic quality with a slight horizontal line. The fabric looks the same on both sides. ar

Poplin

A fabric made using a rib variation of the plain weave. The construction is characterized by having a slight ridge effect in one direction, usually the filling. Poplin used to be associated with casual clothing, but as the "world of work" has become more relaxed, this fabric has developed into a staple of men's wardrobes, being used frequently in casual trousers.

Post-Cure

A type of durable press finish in which the finish is applied to the fabric by the mill, but the garment manufacturer completes the cure of the finish by applying heat, using an oven, or press, or both to the completed garment.

Pre-Cure

A finishing treatment in which the durable press finish is applied to the fabric and set, or cured, through the use of heat at the mill, prior to shipment of the fabric to the garment manufacturer.

Pre-Shrunk

Fabrics which have received a treatment, which causes shrinking. Often done on cottons before cutting the fabric in order to remove the tendency for shrinkage in the finished garment. The percent of residual shrinkage must be indicated on the label of the treated goods or garments.

Press

1A device that uses heat and pressure to remove wrinkles and creases and smooth fabrics during garment construction. 2. A device used to press or compress raw materials. 3. To iron in the home or commercial laundry. 4. To squeeze liquid out of a fabric through the use of roller presses.

PTFE Fabric

A fabric made from Polytetrafluoroethylene, such as Gore-Tex.

Pucker

The uneven surface caused by differential shrinkage in the two layers of a bonded fabric during processing, dry cleaning, or washing.

Purl Stitch

A basic stitch used in weft knitting, which produces knit fabrics that have the same appearance on both sides. The purl stitch is frequently used in combination with the jersey and rib stitches to produce a knitted fabric design. Sweaters, knitted fabrics for infants and children's wear, knitted fabrics for specialized sportswear, and bulky knit fabrics are commonly made using the purl stitch.
 

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