An unsupported coil comprising wraps of yarn (or sliver) made by winding the yarn on a reeling machine with a cross-wound pattern and then binding it to prevent tangling.
A steel wire or strip with an eye in the centre, or a similar device through which a warp yarn is threaded. The heald enables the yarn to be raised or lowered during weaving to create a shed.
A frame in which a large number of healds are mounted. Typically a loom contains two or more heald shafts, depending upon the complexity of the weave pattern required. The heald shaft is raised or lowered by means of cams or a dobby mechanism to form a shed and to create different weave patterns.
A light-coloured, strong bast fibre obtained from the hemp plant Cannabis sativa.
A broken twill weave giving a zigzag or herringbone effect.
A filament made up of more than one polymer.
Melt-spun fibres extruded through special spinnerets to produce fibres with one or more holes down their length. Such fibres are good insulators and give warmth without adding weight.
Hollow Spindle Spinning
A system of yarn formation, also known as wrap spinning, in which the feed stock (sliver or roving) is drafted, and the drafted twistless strand is wrapped with a yarn as it passes through a rotating hollow spindle. The binder or wrapping yarn is mounted on the hollow spindle and is unwound and wrapped around the core by rotation of the spindle. The technique may be used for producing a range of wrap spun yarns, or fancy yarns, by using feeding different yarn and fibre feedstocks to the hollow spindle at different speeds.
A fabric structure in which the warp and weft threads form ridges and hollows, so as to give a cellular appearance Hopsack: A modification of a plain weave in which two or more ends or picks weave as one.
A fabric installed during the construction of a building between its inner structure and outer facing.House-wrap is air permeable but not water permeable.
Fibres which tend to attract and are wetted by water. These may be valuable for wicking or for absorption.
Fibres which tend to repel and are not wetted by water.
A term used to describe a substance which attracts moisture from the atmosphere.
The way the fabric feels when it is touched. Terms like softness, crispness, dryness, silkiness are all terms that describe the hand of the fabric.
A high-impact, abrasion-resistant outer fabric, which provides protection from the environment.
Heat Set Finish (Heat Sealing)
A process of heat finishing that will stabilize many manufactured fiber fabrics in order that there will not be any subsequent change in shape or size. Heat setting is used to permanently impart a crease, a pleat, or durability into a fabric or garment---a finish that will remain through repeated washings and dry cleanings.
A yarn that is spun using pre-dyed fibers. These fibers are blended together to give a particular look. (For example, black and white may be blended together to create a grey heathered yarn.) The term, heather, may also be used to describe the fabric made from heathered yarns.
Also called expedition weight. Most often use din base layers. Thick and warm, it is usually brushed on the inside for warmth and wicking, and smooth on the outside to protect.
The double fold of fabric secured with a row of stitching with the raw edge of the fabric buried within the fold.
A single fold of fabric secured with a row of stitching, leaving the raw edge of the fabric exposed.
A coarse, durable bast fiber obtained from the inner bark of the hemp plant. Used primarily in twines and cordages, and most recently apparel.
A variation on the twill weave construction in which the twill is reversed, or broken, at regular intervals, producing a zig-zag effect.
A term given to a fiber structure that contains more air then fiber. It is a lofty, low-density material that is used in such applications as fiberfill, insulation, etc.
High Visability Fabrics
Fabrics that contain fluorescent materials in order to make the wearer visible in dim and dark lights. These fabrics have the ability to reflect on-coming lights, which cause them to glow in the dark.
Manufactured fiber made with a hollow center.
Hollow Filament Fibers
Manufactured, continuous filament fibers that have a center void, which has been created through the introduction of air or other gas in the polymer solution, or by melt spinning through specially designed spinnerets during production.
variation on the twill weave construction in which a broken check effect is produced by a variation in the pattern of interlacing yarns, utilizing at least two different colored yarns.
Fibers that absorb water easily, take longer to dry, and require more ironing. Hydrophobic Fibers - Fibers that lack the ability to absorb water.
Literally, the feel of the goods in the hand; a qualitative term used to describe the tactile properties of a fabric.
A large check turned 45 degrees to form a diamond in two or more contrasting colors; suggested by the loudly checked costume of a harlequin.
Heat transfer printing
A method that transfers designs from rolls of paper to polyester or other thermo-plastic fibers. Designs are preprinted with disperse dyes on paper, and under high temperature are transferred onto fabric when both are passed through a heat transfer printing machine. Disperse dyes are the only ones that can sublimate and therefore are the only ones that can be used. An adaptation of the decalcomania method.
A twill weave that reverses direction across the fabric to form a chevron.
A pique' weave in a hexagonal shape. They are often referred to as a waffle weave.