Textile Dictionary-F

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

False Twist

The twist inserted in yarn using false twisting such that the net twist in the yarn is zero.

Fancy Yarn

A yarn which differs from the normal construction of single and folded yarns by way of deliberately produced irregularities in its construction. These irregularities are formed by increasing the input of one or more of the yarns components.

Fell (of the cloth)

The edge of the fabric in a weaving loom formed by the last weft thread.

Felting

The matting together of fibres during processing. This is achieved on animal hair or wool by the application of moisture or heat, which causes the constituent fibres to mat together.

Fibre

A material used to make textiles which is flexible, fine, and has a high ratio of length to thickness.

Fibrefill

Staple fibres used for stuffing or padding quilts, upholstery and toys, etc.

Fibroin

A tough, elastic protein which forms the principal component of raw silk.

Fil Coupé

Extra, floating, wefts which are embodied in a fabric, particularly a jacquard, and can be cut to produce a fringe effect.

Filament

A fibre of indefinite length. Flame resistant: a term used to describe fibres, yarns or fabrics which resist burning.

Flame Retardant

A substance added or a treatment applied to a material in order to suppress, significantly reduce or delay the propagation of flame

Flannel

Generally, a cotton or wool fabric, which has been napped on one or both sides (usually both) followed by a bleaching, dyeing or printing process and then brushed or rerun through the napping machine to revive the nap.

Flared Leg

A style of jeans which are tightly fitted around the hips and thighs of a person but become much wider from the knees downwards

Flax

The fibre used to make linen textiles.

Fleece fabric

A fabric, usually knitted, with a heavy napped surface on one side. The fabric is produced using two types of yarn, one for the face area and the other for the reverse.

Floating (Warp)

A length of warp yarn which passes over two or more weft threads (rather than intersecting with them) in a woven structure.

Floating (Weft)

A length of weft yarn which passes over two or more warp threads (rather than intersecting with them) in a woven structure.

Flock

A material obtained by reducing textile fibres to fragments by, for example, cutting, tearing, or grinding.

Flock Printing

A process in which a fabric is printed with an adhesive, followed by the application of finely chopped fibres over the whole surface of the fabric by means of dusting-on, an air blast, or electrostatic attraction. The fibres adhere to the printed areas, and are removed from the unprinted areas by mechanical action.

Flocking

A process in which short chopped lengths of fibre (flock) are applied to an adhesive coated backing fabric or other substrate. The application is usually carried out electrostatically.

Foam Printing

A process in which a rubber solution is turned into a foam and squeezed through a screen to make a rubber print. Also known as puff rubber printing.

FOB

Free-on-board
goods are delivered on-board a ship or to another carrier at no cost to the buyer.

Folded Yarn

A yarn made by twisting two or more single yarns together in one operation

Free Shrinkage

Spontaneous shrinkage in the absence of outside influences such as heat or a liquid.

Free Swell Absorbency

The weight of fluid in grams that can be absorbed by 1 gram of fibre, yarn or fabric.

Fretting

the wearing away of filaments through friction. Fuji silk: a spun-silk fabric woven in a plain weave.

Flounce

Hanging strips of material which are normally sewn to the hem of a skirt.

Fringe

An example of trim or embellishment that is used on draperies, upholstery and other soft home decorating goods.

Frieze

A pile fabric with uncut loops with the patterns created by cutting some of the loops or using different color yarns.

Face Finished Fabrics

Fabrics which have surface treatments that provide a variety of looks and effects on the fabric surface. These include brushing, sanding, sueding, etc. The warp knit industry is specially innovative with face finishing techniques

Facing

A piece of fabric that is sewn to the collar, front opening, cuffs, or arms eye of a garment to create a finished look.

Faille

A glossy, soft, finely-ribbed silk-like woven fabric made from cotton, silk, or manufactured fibers

Fell

To join two pieces of material with the edges folded together using double needle stitching.

Felt

A non-woven fabric made from wool, hair, or fur, and sometimes in combination with certain manufactured fibers, where the fibers are locked together in a process utilizing heat, moisture, and pressure to form a compact material.

Fiber

The basic entity, either natural or manufactured, which is twisted into yarns, and then used in the production of a fabric.

Fiberfill

Specially engineered manufactured fibers, which are used as filler material in pillows, mattresses, mattress pads, sleeping bags, comforters, quilts, and outerwear

Filament

A manufactured fiber of indefinite length (continuous), extruded from the spinneret during the fiber production process.

Filling

In a woven fabric, the yarns that run cross the fabric from selvage to selvage, and which run perpendicular to the warp or lengthwise yarns. Also referred to as the weft.

Findings

Any extra items attached to a garment during the manufacturing process. This can include trims, buttons, hooks, snaps, or embellishments.

Finished Fabric

A fabric that has gone through all the necessary finishing processes, and is ready to be used in the manufacturing of garments. These processes include bleaching, dyeing, printing, heat setting, etc.

Flame Resistant

Fabrics treated with special chemical agents or finishes to make them resistant to burning. Today many fabrics achieve this property by using fibers that have this property built directly into the polymer. A fabric is considered flame resistant if it passes federal specifications for specific end-uses.

Flame Retardant

A chemical applied to a fabric, or incorporated into the fiber at the time of production, which significantly reduces a fabric's flammability.

Flannel

A medium-weight, plain or twill weave fabric that is typically made from cotton, a cotton blend, or wool. The fabric has a very soft hand, brushed on both sides to lift the fiber ends out of the base fabric and create a soft, fuzzy surface. End-uses include shirts and pajamas.

Flannelette

A medium-weight, plain weave fabric with a soft hand, usually made from cotton. The fabric is usually brushed only on one side, and is lighter weight than flannel. End-uses include shirts and pajamas.

Flax

The plant from which cellulosic linen fiber is obtained. Linen is used in apparel, accessories, draperies, upholstery, tablecloths, and towels.

Fleece

The wool shorn from any sheep, or from any animal in the wool category.

Fleece Fabric

A lightweight fabric with a thick, heavy fleece-like surface. It may be a pile or napped fabric, or either woven or knit construction. End uses include coats, jackets, blankets, etc. Fleece fabrics are available in a variety of constuctions: 1) Polarfleece® is the original fleece fabric, developed in 1979, by Malden Mills. It is typically used for non-technical garments, and it is only available at Malden Mills®; 2) Polartec®, also developed by Malden Mills, was created for today's high-performance technical garments, which provides enhanced durability warmth, wind resistance, breathability and weather protection.

Flocking

A type of raised decoration applied to the surface of a fabric in which an adhesive is printed on the fabric in a specific pattern, and then finely chopped fibers are applied by means of dusting, air-brushing, or electrostatic charges. The fibers adhere only to the areas where the adhesive has been applied, and the excess fibers are removed by mechanical means.

Foulard

A lightweight twill-weave fabric, made from filament yarns like silk, acetate, polyester, with a small all-over print pattern on a solid background. The fabric is often used in men's ties.

Four-way Stretch

A fabric that stretches both on the crosswise and lengthwise grains of the fabric. It is the same as two-way stretch.

Fr ont(stitched down)

A front the has a double-turned hem that is stiched down full length of the front. The term may also refer to the shell (outside) front of self-goods

Full-cut

Not tapered.

Fungicide

Kills fungi. Fungistat - Inhibits fungal growth

Felt

A fabric made from fibers not taken to yarn form but instead intermeshed by heat, moisture and agitation or a fabric made by shrinking and agitating woven or knit cloth to obtain superior density, resilience and strength.

Fiberglass

A manmade mineral fiber extruded in continuous filaments.

Filament

A continuous strand of silk or manmade fiber.

Filling (Weft)

An element carried horizontally through the open shed of the vertical warp in a woven fabric.

Flame resistant

fabric A fabric whose fiber content or topical finish makes it difficult to ignite and slow to burn.

Flame retardant fabric

A manmade fabric whose fiber content is officially acceptable for most fire code requirements.

Flange

Using fabric, a decorative finish sewn into a seam. To avoid the dog-ear affect a pellon may be inserted to stabilize the flange.Flannel A woolen fabric whose surface is slightly napped in finish.

Flax

The plant from the stem of which bast fiber is extracted by retting to produce linen. An erroneous term for linen fiber, particularly in blends.

Float

The portion of a warp or weft yarn that rides over two or more opposing yarns to form a sleek face, as in satin or is grouped to form a pattern on the face, as in brocade.

Face Finished Fabrics

Fabrics which have surface treatments that provide a variety of looks and effects on the fabric surface. These include brushing, sanding, sueding, etc. The warp knit industry is specially innovative with face finishing techniques.

Facing

A piece of fabric that is sewn to the collar, front opening, cuffs, or arms eye of a garment to create a finished look.

Faille

A glossy, soft, finely-ribbed silk-like woven fabric made from cotton, silk, or manufactured fibers

Fell

To join two pieces of material with the edges folded together using double needle stitching.

Felt

A non-woven fabric made from wool, hair, or fur, and sometimes in combination with certain manufactured fibers, where the fibers are locked together in a process utilizing heat, moisture, and pressure to form a compact material.

Fiber

The basic entity, either natural or manufactured, which is twisted into yarns, and then used in the production of a fabric.

Fiberfill

Specially engineered manufactured fibers, which are used as filler material in pillows, mattresses, mattress pads, sleeping bags, comforters, quilts, and outerwear

Filament

A manufactured fiber of indefinite length (continuous), extruded from the spinneret during the fiber production process.

Filling

In a woven fabric, the yarns that run cross the fabric from selvage to selvage, and which run perpendicular to the warp or lengthwise yarns. Also referred to as the weft.

Findings

Any extra items attached to a garment during the manufacturing process. This can include trims, buttons, hooks, snaps, or embellishments.

Finished Fabric

A fabric that has gone through all the necessary finishing processes, and is ready to be used in the manufacturing of garments. These processes include bleaching, dyeing, printing, heat setting, etc.

Flame Resistant

Fabrics treated with special chemical agents or finishes to make them resistant to burning. Today many fabrics achieve this property by using fibers that have this property built directly into the polymer. A fabric is considered flame resistant if it passes federal specifications for specific end-uses.Flame Retardant- A chemical applied to a fabric, or incorporated into the fiber at the time of production, which significantly reduces a fabric's flammability.

Flannel

A medium-weight, plain or twill weave fabric that is typically made from cotton, a cotton blend, or wool. The fabric has a very soft hand, brushed on both sides to lift the fiber ends out of the base fabric and create a soft, fuzzy surface. End-uses include shirts and pajamas.

Flannelette

A medium-weight, plain weave fabric with a soft hand, usually made from cotton. The fabric is usually brushed only on one side, and is lighter weight than flannel. End-uses include shirts and pajamas.

Flax

The plant from which cellulosic linen fiber is obtained. Linen is used in apparel, accessories, draperies, upholstery, tablecloths, and towels.

Fleece

The wool shorn from any sheep, or from any animal in the wool category.

Fleece Fabric

A lightweight fabric with a thick, heavy fleece-like surface. It may be a pile or napped fabric, or either woven or knit construction. End uses include coats, jackets, blankets, etc. Fleece fabrics are available in a variety of constuctions: 1) Polarfleece® is the original fleece fabric, developed in 1979, by Malden Mills. It is typically used for non-technical garments, and it is only available at Malden Mills®; 2) Polartec®, also developed by Malden Mills, was created for today's high-performance technical garments, which provides enhanced durability warmth, wind resistance, breathability and weather protection.

Flocking

A type of raised decoration applied to the surface of a fabric in which an adhesive is printed on the fabric in a specific pattern, and then finely chopped fibers are applied by means of dusting, air-brushing, or electrostatic charges. The fibers adhere only to the areas where the adhesive has been applied, and the excess fibers are removed by mechanical means.

Foulard

A lightweight twill-weave fabric, made from filament yarns like silk, acetate, polyester, with a small all-over print pattern on a solid background. The fabric is often used in men's ties.

Four-way Stretch

A fabric that stretches both on the crosswise and lengthwise grains of the fabric. It is the same as two-way stretch.

Front(stitched down)

A front the has a double-turned hem that is stiched down full length of the front. The term may also refer to the shell (outside) front of self-goods.

Full-cut

Not tapered.

Fungicide

Kills fungi.

Fungistat

Inhibits fungal growth.
 
 

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