Textile Dictionary-D

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

 

Damask

A figured woven fabric in which the design is created by the use of satin and sateen weaves.

Decitex

A unit of the tex system. A measure of linear density; the weight in grams of 10,000 metres of yarn.

Denier

A measure of linear density; the weight in grams of 9,000 metres of yarn.

Denim

A 3/1 warp-faced twill fabric made from a yarn-dyed warp and an undyed weft yarn. Traditionally, the warp yarn was indigo-dyed.

Dent

The space between adjacent wires in a reed.

Dip Dyeing

A process in which a garment is dipped into a dye bath to achieve dye take-up only in those areas immersed.

Dobby

A mechanism for controlling the vertical position of heald shafts on a loom, so as to selectively raise some warp threads while leaving others depressed. The use of a dobby facilitates the weaving of a fabric which has a more complex structure.

Dogstooth or Houndstooth Check

A small colour and weave effect using a 2/2 twill.

Donegal

A tweed yarn or fabric with different colour neps.

Doupion

A fabric made of irregular, raw, rough silk reeled from double cocoons, or a man-made fibre substitute designed to imitate the silk equivalent.

Drafting

A process which reduces the linear density of an assembly of fibres. Drafting typically occurs in the early stages of producing yarns from staple fibres. Draw spinning: A process for spinning partially or highly oriented filaments in which the orientation is introduced after melt spinning but prior to the first forwarding or collecting device.

Draw Twist

A process of orienting a filament yarn by drawing it and then twisting it in integrated sequential stages Drill: A twill fabric, usually piece-dyed, similar in construction to a denim.

Dry Spinning

In the dry spinning process, polymer is dissolved in a solvent before being spun into warm air where the solvent evaporates. This leaves the fibrous polymer ready for drawing.

Dye Liquor

The liquid that contains the dye and the reagents necessary for dyeing.

Damask

A classic that has remained unchanged for years, a damask is a fabric with a woven pattern similar to brocade but flatter and reversible. Usually woven in one color, the weave used for the background differs than the weave of the pattern and is made visible by the effect of light striking the contrasting satin and matte surface areas.Originally made of silk, damasks are now made of linen, cotton, rayon and wool or a combination of any two.

Denim

A very serviceable and heavy cotton twill, and easily recognized by the traditional indigo blue.

Damask

A glossy jacquard fabric, usually made from linen, cotton, rayon, silk, or blends. The patterns are flat and reversible. The fabric is often used in napkins, tablecloths, draperies, and upholstery.

Dart (cut-in)

An open dart cut in approximately 12" under the armhole.

Dart (front or double)

An additional closed dart located toward the front edge of the garment, used to get maximum waist suppression.

Dart (panel)

A panel sewn full length to the front that is used for waist suppression.

Denier

A system of measuring the weight of a continuous filament fiber. In the United States, this measurement is used to number all manufactured fibers (both filament and staple), and silk, but excluding glass fiber. The lower the number, the finer the fiber; the higher the number, the heavier the fiber. Numerically, a denier is the equivalent to the weight in grams of 9,000 meters of continuous filament fiber.

Denier Per Filament

The size of an individual filament, or an individual staple fiber if it were continuous, The dpf is determined by dividing the yarn denier per filament by the number of filaments in the yarn.

Denim

True denim is a twill weave cotton-like fabric made with different colored yarns in the warp and the weft. other. In the weaving process, the two layers of woven fabric are held together using binder threads. The woven patterns in each layer of fabric can be similar or completely different

Double Knit

A weft knit fabric in which two layers of loops are formed that cannot be searated. A double knit machine, which has two complete sets of needles, is required for this construction. both sides. Today, most double knits are made of I5O denier polyester, although many lightweight versions are now being made using finer denier yarns and blends of filament and spun yarns.

Double Weave

A woven fabric construction made by interlacing two or more sets of warp yarns with two or more sets of filling yarns. The most common double weave fabrics are made using a total of either four or five sets of yarns.

Down

The soft, fluffy fiber or underfeathers of ducks, geese, or other water fowl. Used primarily for insulation in outerwear garments.

Duck

A tightly woven, heavy, plain-weave, bottom-weight fabric with a hard, durable finish. The fabric is usually made of cotton, and is widely used in men's and women's slacks, and children's play clothes.

Durability

The ability of a fabric to resist wear through continual use.

Durable Press

A treatment applied to the fabric in the finishing process in which it maintains a smooth attractive appearance, resists wrinkling, and retains creases or pleats during laundering.

Durable Water Repellent (DWR)

Fabrics that retain their durability and their ability to repel water after wearing, washing, and cleaning. Typically involves a fabric with a coating



Dye (Piece)

Dyeing of the fabric into solid colors after weaving or knitting.

Dye (Yarn)

Dyeing of the yarn into solid colors before weaving or knitting.

Damask

Originally a rich silk fabric with woven floral designs made in China and introduced into Europe through Damascus, from which it derived its name. Typically, damasks are woven with a single beam (warp) with one or two weft colors. The fancy damasks reveal the smooth warp satin in the background with the low luster reverse sating in the motif. In two color damasks the colors reverse on either side. Single damask is made with a five-harness satin weave; the true or double or reverse damask, is woven with an eight-harness satin weave and has a firm hand

Denim

Yarn-dyed cotton cloth woven in a warp-faced twill, usually with a dyed warp and a natural weft

Density

A standard measurement of thickness in fabric weight. Yarn size, amount of warp ends and weft picks determine the density

Doupione

An irregular, slub silk reeled from double cocoons or silk worms which have spun their cocoons side by side causing an interlock, making it necessary to reel them together. Antique taffetas and sheers are woven with doupioni weft yarn, as are many damasks

Duck

A broad term for a wide range of plain weave fabrics, duck is usually made of cotton, although sometimes linen is used. The terms canvas and duck are often interchangeable, but "canvas" often is used to refer to the heavier constructions. The term "duck" had its origins before the mid 19th Century when all canvas for sails were imported. The light flax sail fabrics imported mostly from England and Scotland bore the trademark stencil of a raven while the weights bore the trademark picturing a duck. The word "duck" became associated with a heavy fabric and was applied to cotton canvas when it was first manufactured in the U.S.

Damask

A glossy jacquard fabric, usually made from linen, cotton, rayon, silk, or blends. The patterns are flat and reversible. The fabric is often used in napkins, tablecloths, draperies, and upholstery.

Dart (cut-in)

An open dart cut in approximately 12" under the armhole

Dart (front or double)

An additional closed dart located toward the front edge of the garment, used to get maximum waist suppression.

Dart (panel)

A panel sewn full length to the front that is used for waist suppression.

Denier

A system of measuring the weight of a continuous filament fiber. In the United States, this measurement is used to number all manufactured fibers (both filament and staple), and silk, but excluding glass fiber. The lower the number, the finer the fiber; the higher the number, the heavier the fiber. Numerically, a denier is the equivalent to the weight in grams of 9,000 meters of continuous filament fiber.

Denier Per Filament

The size of an individual filament, or an individual staple fiber if it were continuous, The dpf is determined by dividing the yarn denier per filament by the number of filaments in the yarn.

Denim

True denim is a twill weave cotton-like fabric made with different colored yarns in the warp and the weft. Due to the twill construction, one color predominates on the fabric surface.



Dobby Weave

A decorative weave, characterized by small figures, usually geometric, that are woven into the fabric structure. Dobbies may be of any weight or compactness, with yarns ranging from very fine to coarse and fluffy. Standard dobby fabrics are usually flat and relatively fine or sheer. However, some heavyweight dobby fabrics are available for home furnishings and for heavy apparel

Doeskin

Generally used to describe a type of fabric finish in which a low nap is brushed in one direction to create a soft suede-like feel on the fabric surface. End-uses include billiard table surfaces and men's' sportswear.

Donegal Tweed

A medium to heavy, plain or twill weave fabric in which colorful yarn slubs are woven into the fabric. The name originally applied to a hand-woven woolen tweed fabric made in Donegal, Ireland. End-uses include winter coats and suits.

Dotted Swiss

A lightweight, sheer cotton or cotton blend fabric with a small dot flock-like pattern either printed on the surface of the fabric, or woven into the fabric. End-uses for this fabric include blouses, dresses, baby clothes, and curtains.

Double Cloth

A fabric construction, in which two fabrics are woven on the loom at the same time, one on top of the other. In the weaving process, the two layers of woven fabric are held together using binder threads. The woven patterns in each layer of fabric can be similar or completely different

Double Knit

A fabric knitted on a circular knitting machine using interlocking loops and a double stitch on a double needle frame to form a fabric with double thickness. It is the same on both sides. Today, most double knits are made of I5O denier polyester, although many lightweight versions are now being made using finer denier yarns and blends of filament and spun yarns.

Double Knit

A weft knit fabric in which two layers of loops are formed that cannot be separated. A double knit machine, which has two complete sets of needles, is required for this construction.

Double Weave

A woven fabric construction made by interlacing two or more sets of warp yarns with two or more sets of filling yarns. The most common double weave fabrics are made using a total of either four or five sets of yarns.

Down

The soft, fluffy fiber or underfeathers of ducks, geese, or other water fowl. Used primarily for insulation in outerwear garments.

Duck

A tightly woven, heavy, plain-weave, bottom-weight fabric with a hard, durable finish. The fabric is usually made of cotton, and is widely used in men's and women's slacks, and children's play clothes. Durability- The ability of a fabric to resist wear through continual use.

Durable Press

A treatment applied to the fabric in the finishing process in which it maintains a smooth attractive appearance, resists wrinkling, and retains creases or pleats during laundering.

Durable Water Repellent (DWR)

Fabrics that retain their durability and their ability to repel water after wearing, washing, and cleaning. Typically involves a fabric with a coating

Dye (Piece)

Dyeing of the fabric into solid colors after weaving or knitting.

Dye (Yarn)

Dyeing of the yarn into solid colors before weaving or knitting.
 
 

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