Textile Dictionary-B

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Ballotini
Small glass beads which are normally used in reflective paints but which can also be incorporated into fabrics.

Bandana

Handkerchief designs in simple colour and white stylised patterns, including spots and paisley.

Basket weave

A textile weave consisting of double threads interlaced to produce a checkered pattern similar to that of a woven basket.

Bast fibre

Fibre obtained from the stems of certain types of plant.

Batik

A traditional dyeing process in which portions of cloth are coated with wax and therefore resist the dye, enabling distinctive patterns to be created. Batik fabrics are characterised by a streaky or mottled appearance.

Batt

Single or multiple sheets of fibre used in the production of nonwoven fabric.
Bedford cord
A fabric constructed in such a way as to show rounded cords in the warp direction with pronounced sunken lines between them.
Bias
The direction diagonally across a piece of fabric at 45º to the warp and weft. Bicomponent fabric: A fabric with two layers.

Bi-component fibres

Fibres spun from two different polymers. The most common types are made from polymers which have different melting points and are used for thermal bonding. Another variant is produced from polymers which have differing solubilities. In this case one polymer may later be dissolved out to leave ultra-fine filaments. An example is the production of suede-like fabrics. This process is also used to create crimping, in order to provide bulk or stretch.

Bicomponent yarn

A yarn having two different continuous filament components

Binder (nonwoven)

An adhesive material used to hold fibres together in a nonwoven structure. Birdseye: A fabric woven to produce a pattern of very small, uniform spots.

Bi-shrinkage yarn

A yarn containing two different types of filament, which have different shrinkages.

Blooming

The tendency of a yarn to become fuller-looking when wetted and dried under certain conditions. In practice, the overall yarn diameter increases slightly-resulting in a "halo effect" or softer look-and the length diminishes. The effect usually results fro a nonwoven fabric in which the fibres are held together by a bonding material. This may be an adhesive or a bonding fibre with a low melting point. Alternatively, the material may be held together by stitching.

Braided yarn

Intertwined yarn containing two or more strands.

Breathability

The ability of a fabric, coating or laminate to transfer water vapour from one of its surfaces through the material to the other surface.

Brocade

Usually a jacquard woven fabric in which the figure is developed by floating the warp threads, the weft threads, or both, and interlacing them in a more or less irregular order

Brocatelle

A heavy figured cloth in which the pattern is created by warp threads in a satin weave.

Brushed fabrics

Fabrics which have undergone a brushing process to produce a napped surface. Brushed fabrics usually have a soft, slightly weathered, broken-in feel.

Bullet proof material

A material which provides complete protection against all types of high velocity projectiles or against multiple hits in the same location from such projectiles.

Bushing

A block made from platinum alloy containing several hundred holes through which molten glass is fed at very high temperatures from a furnace, resulting in the formation of glass filaments.

Batik

:One of the oldest forms of dyeing fabrics, using wax. Portions of the fabric are coated in wax leaving the unwaxed areas to take the dye, then the wax is removed. This method of dyeing is imitated in machine printing.

Boucle

Knitted or woven fabrics made distinctively by its small regularly spaced loops of specially twisted yarns.

Brocade

Rich fabric wove on a loom with the jacquard attachment giving an embossed appearance that resembles embroidery in a pattern of raised figures or flowers. Many times it includes gold and silver threads. The name is derived from the French meaning to ornament.

Back Length

The dimension on a garment taken from the center collar attaching seam to the bottom of the garment, or in the case of a coverall, to the top of the waistband.

Back Waist Length

The dimenion on a body, taken from the top of the back bone at the base of the neck to the waistline.

Bactericide

Kills bacteria.

Bacteriostat

Doesn't necessarily mean that it kills bacteria. A stat means that it may simply be slowing growth or holding the death to growth rates of bacteria (same for fungal stats) more or less in equilibrium. Inhibits bacteria growth.

Ballistic

A thick woven fabric that is extremely abrasion resistant and tough; has a denier of about 2000, and is used in apparel, packs and gear.

Band (Continuous/Grown-on)

Pant panels that extend to the top of the pant and are folded over without an outside band. A separate inside band lining is sewn through the pant and has an interlining.

Band (Pasted-on/Folder-set)

A separate band sewn on the pant with stitching that shows on the outside at the top and bottom.

Band (Rocap)

A separate band of body fabric sewn on and turned down so the attaching seam is not visible. Inside the band is a separate lining---made from pcketing fabric---and interlining.

Barré

An imperfection, characterized by a ridge or mark running in the crosswise or lengthwise directions of the fabric. Barrés can be caused by tension variations in the knitting process, poor quality yarns, problems during the finishing process.

Bartack

To reinforce a seam with a bar of stitches that provides a more durable seam end. (Commonly used at points of strain.)

Base Layer

The apparel in contact with your skin. The purpose of the base layer is to keep you warm/cool and dry.
 

Basket Weave

A variation of the plain weave construction, formed by treating two or more warp yarns and/or two or more filling yarns as one unit in the weaving process. Yarns in a basket weave are laid into the woven construction flat, and maintain a parallel relationship. Both balanced and unbalanced basket weave fabrics can be produced. Examples of basket weave construction includes monk cloth and oxford cloth. Bast Fiber - Strong, soft, woody fibers, such as flax, jute, hemp, and ramie, which are obtained from the inner bark in the stems of certain plants.

Batiste

A medium-weight, plain weave fabric, usually made of cotton or cotton blends. End-uses include blouses and dresses.

Bedford Cord

A cord cotton-like fabric with raised ridges in the lengthwise direction. Since the fabric has a high strength and a high durability, it is often used for upholstery and work clothes.

Beeze

Piping or cording formed at lower and inside pocket welts.

Besom

An edging or reinforcement around a pocket opening.

Bleaching

A process of whitening fibers, yarns, or fabrics by removing the natural and artificial impurities to obtain clear whites for finished fabric, or in preparation for dyeing and finishing. The materials may be treated with chemicals or exposed to sun, air, and moisture.

Blend

A term applied to a yarn or a fabric that is made up of more than one fiber. In blended yarns, two or more different types of staple fibers are twisted or spun together to form the yarn. Examples of a typical blended yarn or fabric is polyester/cotton.

Bonding

The technique of permanently joining together two fabrics or layers of fabrics together by a bonding agent.into one package. The bonding of fibers in a single layer of material is called a web. Special adhesives, binders, or thin slices of foam may be used as the marrying agent.

Bonding

A process for adhesive laminating of two or more fabrics or fabric and a layer of plastic by means of a bonding agent (adhesives, plastics or cohesion).

Boucle

A knit or woven fabric made from a rough, curly, knotted boucle yarn. The fabric has a looped, knotted surface and is often used in sportswear and coats

Break

Point on the front edge of the garment at which the roll of the lapel begins. Usually at the same point as the lower end of the bridle.

Breathability

The movement of water or water vapor from one side of the fabric to the other, caused by capillary action, wicking, chemical, or electrostatic action. Also known as moisture transport.

Broad Spectrum Antimicrobia

An antimicrobial that effectively controls or kills at least 3 of the basic microorganism groups. This term is important to help give a specific encompassing term to technologies that offer protection from the gamut of microorganisms, without the sometimes vague nature of the term antimicrobial, which could mean kills just one type or kills many types.

Broadcloth

A plain weave tightly woven fabric, characterized by a slight ridge effect in one direction, usually the filling. The most common broadcloth is made from cotton or cotton/polyester blends.

Brocade

A heavy, exquisite jacquard type fabric with an all-over raised pattern or floral design. Common end-uses include such formal applications as upholstery, draperies, and eveningwear.

Brushing

A finishing process for knit or woven fabrics in which brushes or other abrading devices are used on a loosely constructed fabric to permit the fibers in the yarns to be raised to create a nap on fabrics or create a novelty surface texture.

Bunting

Can be either a cotton or wool fabric, woven in a plain open weave, similar to cheesecloth, and dyed in the piece. Cotton bunting is often woven with plied yarns. Wool bunting is woven with worsted worsted yarns, using strong, wiry wool.

Burlap

A loosely constructed, heavy weight, plain weave fabric used as a carpet backing, and as inexpensive packaging for sacks of grain or rice. Also, as fashion dictates, burlap may also appear as a drapery fabric.

Burn-out

A brocade-like pattern effect created on the fabric through the application of a chemical, instead of color, during the burn-out printing process. (Sulfuric acid, mixed into a colorless print paste, is the most common chemical used.) Many simulated eyelet effects can be created using this method. In these instances, the chemical destroys the fiber and creates a hole in the fabric in a specific design, where the chemical comes in contact with the fabric. The fabric is then over-printed with a simulated embroidery stitch to create the eyelet effect. However, burn-out effects can also be created on velvets made of blended fibers, in which the ground fabric is of one fiber like a polyester, and the pile may be of a cellulosic fiber like rayon or acetate. In this case, when the chemical is printed in a certain pattern, it destroys the pile in those areas where the chemical comes in contact with the fabric, but leave the ground fabric unharmed.

Buttonhole (eyelet)

Formed by a contoured patch of zig-zag stitching, followed by a cut---a portion of which is circular. Eyelet buttonholes are usually used on heavy fabrics and/or with large buttons. A gimp or cord is usually contained within the stitches to provide a reinforcement along the edge of the hole.

Buttonhole (straight)

Formed by two pairs of straight, parallel rows of zigzag stitching, followed by a single, straight knife cut. Each end of the row of stitching is secured by a bartack.

Buttons

Specified by design, size, color, and type---such as brass, melamine, or pearl, buttons are either shanked (attached by passing threads through the shank's eye) or holed (attached by passing threads through the button's holes).

Bolt

An entire length of fabric, rolled full width on a tube

Border

A border is a gimp, but wider. This trim is sometimes woven in plain patterns, such as stripes or chevrons.

Boucle

A novelty yarn that is looped and crimped to produce a pebbly surfaceBrush Fringe A brush fringe is a cut fringe that has a flat skirt made of thin yarns. The heading can vary from plain to a most elaborate gimp.

Bullion

Fringe Bullion Fringe is made of plain or crepe cords, rather than yarns. The heading can be plain or decorative.

Back Length

The dimension on a garment taken from the center collar attaching seam to the bottom of the garment, or in the case of a coverall, to the top of the waistband.

Back Waist Length

The dimension on a body, taken from the top of the back bone at the base of the neck to the waistline.Bactericide- Kills bacteria.

Bacteriostat

Doesn't necessarily mean that it kills bacteria. A stat means that it may simply be slowing growth or holding the death to growth rates of bacteria (same for fungal stats) more or less in equilibrium. Inhibits bacteria growth.

Ballistic

A thick woven fabric that is extremely abrasion resistant and tough; has a denier of about 2000, and is used in apparel, packs and gear.BTextile Dictionary Band (Continuous/Grown-on)- Pant panels that extend to the top of the pant and are folded over without an outside band. A separate inside band lining is sewn through the pant and has an interlining.

Band (Pasted-on/Folder-set)

A separate band sewn on the pant with stitching that shows on the outside at the top and bottom.

Band (Rocap)

A separate band of body fabric sewn on and turned down so the attaching seam is not visible. Inside the band is a separate lining---made from pcketing fabric---and interlining.

Barré

An imperfection, characterized by a ridge or mark running in the crosswise or lengthwise directions of the fabric. Barrés can be caused by tension variations in the knitting process, poor quality yarns, problems during the finishing process.

Bartack

To reinforce a seam with a bar of stitches that provides a more durable seam end. (Commonly used at points of strain.)

Base Layer

The apparel in contact with your skin. The purpose of the base layer is to keep you warm/cool and dry.

Basket Weave

A variation of the plain weave construction, formed by treating two or more warp yarns and/or two or more filling yarns as one unit in the weaving process. Yarns in a basket weave are laid into the woven construction flat, and maintain a parallel relationship. Both balanced and unbalanced basket weave fabrics can be produced. Examples of basket weave construction includes monk cloth and oxford cloth.Bast Fiber- Strong, soft, woody fibers, such as flax, jute, hemp, and ramie, which are obtained from the inner bark in the stems of certain plants.

Batiste

A medium-weight, plain weave fabric, usually made of cotton or cotton blends. End-uses include blouses and dresses.

Bedford Cord

A cord cotton-like fabric with raised ridges in the lengthwise direction. Since the fabric has a high strength and a high durability, it is often used for upholstery and work clothes.

Bicomponent Fiber

Manufactured fiber made of continuous filaments, and made of two related components, each with different degrees of shrinkage. The result is a crimping of the filament, which makes the fiber stretchable.

Bleaching

A process of whitening fibers, yarns, or fabrics by removing the natural and artificial impurities to obtain clear whites for finished fabric, or in preparation for dyeing and finishing. The materials may be treated with chemicals or exposed to sun, air, and moisture.

Blend

A term applied to a yarn or a fabric that is made up of more than one fiber. In blended yarns, two or more different types of staple fibers are twisted or spun together to form the yarn. Examples of a typical blended yarn or fabric is polyester/cotton.

Bonding

The technique of permanently joining together two fabrics or layers of fabrics together by a bonding agent.into one package. The bonding of fibers in a single layer of material is called a web. Special adhesives, binders, or thin slices of foam may be used as the marrying agent.

Bonding

A process for adhesive laminating of two or more fabrics or fabric and a layer of plastic by means of a bonding agent (adhesives, plastics or cohesion).

Boucle

A knit or woven fabric made from a rough, curly, knotted boucle yarn. The fabric has a looped, knotted surface and is often used in sportswear and coatsBreak- Point on the front edge of the garment at which the roll of the lapel begins. Usually at the same point as the lower end of the bridle.Textile Dictionary

Breathability

The movement of water or water vapor from one side of the fabric to the other, caused by capillary action, wicking, chemical, or electrostatic action. Also known as moisture transport.

Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial

An antimicrobial that effectively controls or kills at least 3 of the basic microorganism groups. This term is important to help give a specific encompassing term to technologies that offer protection from the gamut of microorganisms, without the sometimes vague nature of the term antimicrobial, which could mean kills just one type or kills many types.

Burn-out

A brocade-like pattern effect created on the fabric through the application of a chemical, instead of color, during the burn-out printing process. (Sulfuric acid, mixed into a colorless print paste, is the most common chemical used.) Many simulated eyelet effects can be created using this method. In these instances, the chemical destroys the fiber and creates a hole in the fabric in a specific design, where the chemical comes in contact with the fabric. The fabric is then over-printed with a simulated embroidery stitch to create the eyelet effect. However, burn-out effects can also be created on velvets made of blended fibers, in which the ground fabric is of one fiber like a polyester, and the pile may be of a cellulosic fiber like rayon or acetate. In this case, when the chemical is printed in a certain pattern, it destroys the pile in those areas where the chemical comes in contact with the fabric, but leave the ground fabric unharmed.
 

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