Innovation in Spinning Technologies for Denim Wear

Innovation in Spinning Technologies for Denim Wear 
Amirsuhel Aslam Desai Danwade
D.K.T.E’s Textile and Engineering Institute, 
Ichalkaranji, India
Email: amirdesai78@gmail.com 
 
 

Introduction:-
The word denim was coined from the ancient city of France called serge de Nemis. Denim is a sturdy fabric usually made up from 3/1 twill with indigo dyed warp faced and white filling yarns in the weft of coarser counts. It uses a sturdy twill weave with diagonal ribbing having a high fabric gsm. But the ancient denim now is competed by a fabric known as jeans which has same properties as denim but used with various blends. The production of this fabric has been on an ever increasing demand since then.As far as manufacturing process of denim is considered, it is similar to that of grey fabric up to the process of weaving with only difference that in case of denim fabric, it is dyed at the stage of sizing where as in case of grey fabric, the decision regarding dyeing stage depends upon the finished product.

Objects of denim:-
Traditionally denim was developed as an industrial fabric. The object behind the development of denim was because of its property of durability and better serviceability. But sooner this fabric was accepted by the masses and was used by kids, women and the youth for regular apparel purposes.

Types of denim:-
While the original denim was 100% cotton serge material. But now we get denims in numerous varieties materials and features. There are five major varieties of denim:-

1. Dry Denim - This type of denim is given a dry and rough appearance and not washed after being dyed.
Dry Denim
2. Selvage Denim–This type of denim forms a clean natural edge that does not unravel resembling a selvedge.
Selvage Denim
Selvage Denim
3. Stretch Denim–This type of denim consists of stretch properties due to presence of elastic yarns.
Stretch Denim
Stretch Denim
4. Poly Denim–This denim has look alikes of a denim but are preferably polyester blends.
Poly Denim
Poly Denim
5. Ramie Cotton Denim–In this use of ramie fibre to reduce wrinkles and enhance silky lusture.
Ramie Cotton Denim
Ramie Cotton Denim
Today’s Scenario on Denim:-
Since the introduction of denim in India in 1986, the industry has evolved continuously, witnessing a healthy positive growth for the past decade. India is the most competitively positioned country in the world for denim manufacturing and exports. Innovation has brought a constant change in the Indian denim industry. Stretch denims have proved to be an important innovation in the Indian denim market. Production of various blends has helped in the growing popularity of denim amongst kids and women driving the domestic market. The government’s anticipatory project of – Make in India is working as a growth catalyst. Biotechnology is changing the production of denim fabric as now focus of the present market is “ Sustainable Denim”.

Basis for Selection of Denim wear:- 
 
Fibre properties :- Mostly medium and short length staple fibres of cotton and synthetic are used such as Lycra, polyester, etc.These fibres are preferably used because of their high strength and durable properties.

Yarn properties :- Room for coarser yarns having low twist.Less hairiness and good abrasion resistance.Soft to feel and good absorption to dyes. Impart fancy effect, slub yarn and multi count yarn is used.

Fabric properties:- Made of different twill weaves with high fabric gsm. Use of different blends as elastomers for stretch and other softer blends as rayon, modal for comfort and fit. Use of high luster yarns for better aesthetic properties.

Spinning Technologies Used for Denim Wear:-
There are various spinning technologies used for the production of denim such as Ring spinning, Open end spinning, Twillo spinning, Friction spinning, etc. Of the above mentioned only ring spinning and open-end spinning are commercially used for the production of denim yarns.

Ring Spinning :- The yarn produced on ring spinning has high strength due to existence of high twist.But there is a limited production due to coarse count.The yarn has properties such as high hairiness, less stiffness.
Ring Spinning
Ring Spinning
Open end Spinning: - The yarn produced on open- end or rotor spinning has low strength due to low twist. High production rate and used for production of coarse counts. The yarn properties are better abrasion resistance, high stiffness and resistance to snarling.
Open end Spinning
Open end Spinning
Innovations in Spinning Technologies used:-

Ring Spinning:- Automation in doffing, shifting of top delivery roller for reduction of spinning triangle, roving stop motion, individual spindle monitoring system, centralized suction and waste collection system.
Ring Spinning
Ring Spinning
Open end Spinning:- Automatic take- up of sliver, auto cleaning of rotors, auto doffing, auto sliver piecing, auto can transfer from drawframe. Special attachments such as Amsler control are used to give unique effect.
Open end Spinning
Open end Spinning
Comparison of Spinning technologies:-
Recent Developments for Denim wear:-
Major focus areas of innovation and development are comfort, performance and environment friendliness. Use of special attachments on ring and rotor machines such as Amsler control to impart unique effects to the yarn. Use of multi-component in place of bi-component filament yarn is one such concept in the production of stretch denim yarns. Use of plied yarns on TFO to make denims. Use of slub yarns and multi-count yarns to impart fancy effects. Use of newly developed biochemical and cellulosic fibres such as Cupro, Modal, Promodal, Rayon and Tancel for softer blends of denim. Use of core spun with outstanding abrasion resistance and elasticity and etc. Blends of Bamboo and Hemp are under considerate experimentation for high end use denims. Use of engineered yarns has also found its way in the market because of the competition.

Conclusion:-
Denim is one of few things that has undergone a backward integration – as this fabric was developed for the lower working class, but with passage of time this fabric saw a lot of improvement and was accepted by the higher classes. Denim wear from an industrial fabric has made its way from work wear to be used in every type of garment and became a Fabric for all. It has become a sign of freedom and fashion for youth so there is going to be an ever increasing demand of denim. One of the major challenges of ring spinning is the existence of hairy yarn structure. Compact spinning provides reduced yarn hairiness, higher tenacity and improved yarn evenness. Rotor spinning were previously used only as the weft but now are used as denim warps too.By all these, we have been able to increase the production rate, enhance the varieties and quality range which has made denim – a fabric for all.

References:-
  1. Denim – A fabric for all By – Parmar Satsangi Prakash
  2. Denim – Manufacture, Finishing and Processing By – Roshan Paul
  3. Fibre2fashion magazines
  4. www.fibre2fashion.com
  5. A Practical guide to Ring Spinning By – W. Klein
  6. Spinning Manual of Rieter 
 

Scope of Seam Engineering to Increase the Seam Strength by Controlling Different Parameters (Part-3)

Scope of Seam Engineering to Increase the Seam Strength by Controlling Different Parameters (Part-3)
Authors: MD. Momenur Rahman,
Kazi Mustafijur Rahman,
Rabeya Siddiqua

Atish Dipankar University of Science and Technology
Dhaka, Bangladesh


Previous Part

 
Result Overview
  • From the experimental work, it’s concluded that the usage of thicker threads did not always give better strength and the seam appearance was also poor. 
  • A combination of finer thread with moderate strength and a medium level of stitch density according to fabric weight category provided an effective result for both seam appearance and strength. 
  • Sewing Thread Size/Ticket Number, GSM, SPI &SPM is the main considerable point of the thesis. Change in those parameters seam strength is changed. 
  • The use of low and medium stitch density gave better results in terms of seam strength. 
  • In the prediction, thread tensile strength, extensibility and size were selected in most of the equations. 
  • Thread properties play an important role in determining the quality of seam. 
  • The equations have not been tested with other types of sewing threads since threads used for this study are commonly used in the apparel industry. 
  • Other types of stitches and seams could be used to sew the fabrics and analysis on their seam performance could be done. 
  • For this research, only single stitching was used; another possible research area is to use double stitching.
Effect of sewing thread on seam strength
There are various parameters of sewing thread including its fiber type, construction, finish, size, ply & TPI, which affect the seam quality.

These parameters will be discuss following :
  • Thread Fiber Type (seam strength highest for 100% spun polyester, average for cotton/polyester blend & lowest for 100% cotton).
  • Thread Construction (seam strength highest for core spun yarn; 100% synthetic fiber shows more seam strength).
  • Thread Finish (mercerized threads shows more seam strength than any soft cotton threads of the same fiber type and size ).
  • Thread Ply (the more the thread ply, the more the seam strength is)
  • TPI (the more the TPI, the more the seam strength is).
Effect of Thread size (Ticket Number) on seam strength

Graphical Expression
Data table
  • The numerical expression of sewing thread fineness or coarseness is “Ticket number”. It is equal to three times the metric count of the thread.
  • The more the ticket number, the high the seam strength is.
Effect of fabric properties on seam strength
Various fabric properties like Cover factor, GSM, Thickness, Strength, Extensibility etc.

In the following sections these fabric properties are discussed in brief:
  • Cover Factor (the more the cover factor, the less the seam strength is, the less the cover factor, the more the seam strength is).
  • Fabric Weight(light fabric shows less seam strength than heavy fabrics).
  • Fabric Thickness (the more the fabric thickness, the more the seam)
  • Strength is & less seam efficiency)
  • Fabric Strength (the more the fabric strength, the more the seam strength is & less seam efficiency)
  • Fabric extensibility (the more the fabric extensibility, the more the seam strength is & less seam efficiency).
Effect of GSM on seam strength

Graphical Expression 
Data table
  • GSM means “Gram Per Square Meter”.
  • It is the weight of fabric in gram per one square meter.
  • By this we can compare the fabrics in unit area which is heavier and which is lighter.
  • In a certain point, when GSM increases seam strength increase & over the time seam strength decreases though GSM increase.
Effect of Stitch Density (SPI) on seam strength

Graphical Expression
Data table
  • Stitch density is specified as the number of stitches per inch (SPI).
  • Higher stitches per inch (SPI) means short stitches; and lower SPI means long stitches.
  • The greater the SPI in a seam, the greater the seam strength is & the lower the SPI in a seam, the lower the seam strength is.
Effect of stitch per minute (SPM) on seam strength
Graphical Expression
Data table
  • Modern sewing machine speed can reach up to 5,500 stitches a minute.
  • The fact is that, in a high speed sewing machine the movement of the sewing needle is higher that generates heat.
  • This creates seam damage problem that causes of poor seam efficiency and appearance in a garment.
Effect of other factors on seam strength

Human Factor:
  • If the operator is lacking in skill, seam problems will be generated during sewing.
  • Excessive or improper handling and positioning of the fabric parts during sewing lead to seam puckering.
  • If the operator is unable to handle the sewing machine properly, there is a chance of seam damage due to frequent needle breakage.
Environmental Factor:
  • All environmental problems reduce the concentration and skill of the operator to work.
  • Due to poor concentration and reduction of the skill, the operator cannot properly handle the garment parts during stitching.
  • High humidity and temperature also reduced the strength of sewing thread during sewing that produce poor seam strength.
Recommendations
  • For the analysis of the seam strength, transverse loading was used for this study where the loading was across the seam and the effect of thread strength was analyzed. For future work, the seam strength test could also be done on longitudinal loading where the load is parallel to the seam. 
  • The performance of seam can also be widened for weft and bias directions of sewing for both seam appearance and strength analysis. For the current study, only the warp direction of sewn fabrics was analyzed since this is the most common practice in the industry. 
  • ü Other types of stitches and seams could be used to sew the fabrics and analysis on their seam performance could be done. For this research, only single stitching was used; another possible research area is to use double stitching. 
1     2     3 
 

Comprehensive Study of Textile from Fiber to Fashion

INTRODUCTION 
Fiber to fashion emphasizes a relationship between small fibers to the great fashion. It’s means that the apparels we all prefer in our day to day life are just from a small fiber. We get the fiber from different sources natural; animals and artificial fibers (man-made). The fibers are first extracted from its sources and then send to the processing or for the further processes. The fiber is first sent to the spinning department for yarns, then to the weaving department, to the chemical processing department, garment manufacturers, designers, producers and then at last buyer.

LIFE CYCLE OF TEXTILE PRODUCT -

FIBER – is the smallest unit of any textile material whose length is thousands and thousands time longer than its cross section. The fibers are classified into different groups as mentioned below:

EXTRACTION OF FIBERS – The fibers are different sources. The natural fibers like cotton is extracted from the seed cotton by ginning process, flax (linen) / jute by retting process from the bark of the jute or the flax plant, wool is extracted by shearing process from the sheep’s body, silk is extracted by reeling process by boiling the cocoons and then degumming it and the man-made are extracted by three spinning processes: Melt, Dry and Wet spinning.

As this extraction processes are quite time taking many new technologies are introduced such as the technology developed by CSIR-NIIST involves an anaerobic (oxygen-less) process mediated through microbial action for the banana fiber.

SPINNING - The process, by which the fibers are converted into yarns, is termed as Spinning. The process of spinning is: Blow room line – the bales are opened mixed and blended, Carding – heart of spinning, the fibers (lap) is cleaned, Draw frame – the sliver is converted into thick yarns, Speed Frame – the thick yarns slightly twisted then slightly thinner yarns are produced, Ring Frame – produces perfect yarns and also enhances the quality of the yarn. By the above mentioned process the fiber is converted into yarns.

WEAVING - is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. The longitudinal threads are called the warp and the lateral threads are the weft. Before weaving, sizing process is done in which a size paste is applied on in order to improve the strength and the abrasion resistance of the warp threads. The weaving is done in a loom. The types of weaves are mentioned below:

KNITTING - is a method by which yarn is manipulated to create a textile or fabric and creates multiple loops of yarn, called stitches, in a line or tube.

CHEMICAL PROCESSING – is to remove the impurities from the fabric and including pretreatment, dyeing, printing, finishing. It is classified into two groups: dry chemical processing and wet chemical processing. The dry processing includes: grey inspection, stitching or sewing and singeing and the wet processing includes: desizing, scouring, bleaching, mercerizing, dyeing, printing and finishing.

In the Grey fabric inspection section - the fabric is inspected whether it have any defects or is it fit for the further process, then Stitching or Sewing - is done for cleaning the fabric and for repairing the major and minor defects in it, Singeing – removing the small protruding fibers on the fabric surface, Desizing – removal of size paste from the warp threads and allow the water to penetrate in, Scouring – removal of fatty acids,oils,waxes and other impurities i.e. pectin materials, Bleaching - whitens the fabric and put out of sight the yellow tints, Mercerizing - is the treatment of fabric with concentrated caustic soda under fabric tension. The objective is to achieve a high degree of mercerization thereby improving: luster, dye uptake, tensile strength, Dyeing - is the process of adding color to textile products like fibers, yarns, and fabrics which is retained by the fabric completely, Printing - is the process of applying color to fabric in definite patterns or colors are applied to it in certain parts only, and in sharply defined patterns and Finishing - is a process used in manufacturing of fiber, fabric, or clothing.

APPAREL/ FASHION DESIGN - Apparel designers, also called clothing or fashion designers, conceptualize and create items of clothing. They often specialize in one type of design, such as casual, evening or active wear. Common duties include tracking current fashion trends and predicting future ones, sketching new designs, selecting patterns and fabrics to use in garments and overseeing production. They may then show items to creative directors, clients or retailers, depending on if the garments are to be custom designed or mass produced.

Fashion designers are mostly employed by wholesale or manufacturing outlets, where garments are typically created for mass production; designers can also work for apparel companies, retailers, design firms and theater companies. In these settings, they tend to work as full- or part-time members within a team. At times, long hours are needed to reach deadlines. A number of apparel designers are self employed; they often create custom clothing and may work unusual hours to meet clients' needs. Fashion designers frequently travel to visit manufacturers, attend trade or fashion shows and gain artistic inspiration.

MARKET - The Textile industry in India traditionally, after agriculture, is the only industry that has generated huge employment for both skilled and unskilled labor in textiles. The textile industry continues to be the second largest employment generating sector in India. It offers direct employment to over 35 million in the country. The share of textiles in total exports was 11.04% during April–July 2010, as per the Ministry of Textiles. During 2009-2010, Indian textiles industry was pegged at US$55 billion, 64% of which services domestic demand. In 2010, there were 2,500 textile weaving factories and 4,135 textile finishing factories in all of India. According to AT Kearney’s ‘Retail Apparel Index’, India is ranked as the fourth most promising market for apparel retailers in 2009.

India is first in global jute production and shares 63% of global textile and garment market. India is 2nd in global textile manufacturing and also 2nd in silk and cotton production. 100% FDI is allowed via automatic route in textile sector. Rieter, Trutzschler, Soktas, Zambiati, Bilsar, Monti, CMT, E-land, Nissinbo, Marks & Spencer, Zara, Promod, Benetton, Levi’s are the some of foreign textile companies invested or working in India.

India is the second largest producer of fiber in the world and the major fiber produced is cotton. Other fibers produced in India include silk, jute, wool, and man-made fibers. 60% of the Indian textile Industry is cotton based. The strong domestic demand and the revival of the Economic markets by 2009 have led to huge growth of the Indian textile industry. In December 2010, the domestic cotton price was up by 50% as compared to the December 2009 prices. The causes behind high cotton price are due to the floods in Pakistan and China. India projected a high production of textile (325 lakh bales for 2010 -11). There has been increase in India's share of global textile trading to seven percent in five years. The rising prices are the major concern of the domestic producers of the country.
  • Man Made Fibers: These include manufacturing of clothes using fiber or filament synthetic yarns. It is produced in the large power loom factories. They account for the largest sector of the textile production in India. This sector has a share of 62% of the India's total production and provides employment to about 4.8 million people. 
  • The Cotton Sector: It is the second most developed sector in the Indian Textile industries. It provides employment to huge amount of people but its productions and employment is seasonal depending upon the seasonal nature of the production. 
  • The Handloom Sector: It is well developed and is mainly dependent on the SHGs for their funds. Its market share is 13% of the total cloth produced in India. 
  • The Woolen Sector: India is the 7th largest producer of the wool in the world. India also produces 1.8% of the world's total wool. 
  • The Jute Sector: The jute or the golden fiber in India is mainly produced in the Eastern states of India like Assam and West Bengal. India is the largest producer of jute in the world. 
  • The Sericulture and Silk Sector: India is the 2nd largest producer of silk in the world. India produces 18% of the world's total silk. Mulberry, Eri, Tasar, and Muga are the main types of silk produced in the country. It is a labor-intensive sector.
TRENDS - Fashion forecasting is a global career that focuses on upcoming trends. A fashion forecaster predicts the colors, fabrics, textures, materials, prints, graphics, beauty/grooming, accessories, footwear, street style, and other styles that will be presented on the runway and in the stores for the upcoming seasons. The concept applies to not one, but all levels of the fashion industry including haute couture, ready-to-wear, mass market, and street wear. Trend forecasting is an overall process that focuses on other industries such as automobiles, medicine, food and beverages, literature, and home furnishings. Fashion forecasters are responsible for attracting consumers and helping retail businesses and designers sell their brands. Today, fashion industry workers rely on the Internet to retrieve information on new looks, hot colors, celebrity wardrobes, and designer collections.

SCOPE AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR FASHION DESIGN - There are a number of specialized art schools and design schools worldwide that offer degrees in fashion design and fashion design technology. Some colleges also offer Masters of Fashion courses.

Design schools include:


Argentina
  • School of Architecture, Design and Urbanism, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires
  • University of Palermo, Buenos Aires
Australia
  • Sydney Institute of TAFE
Bangladesh
  • Bangladesh University of Textiles (BUTex), Dhaka
  • Shanto-Mariam University of Creative Technology, Dhaka
  • BGMEA Institute of Fashion & Technology (BUFT), Dhaka
Belgium
  • La Cambre
  • Royal Academy of Fine Arts (Antwerp)
Canada
  • George Brown College
  • Toronto Film School
China
  • Hong Kong
  • Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Denmark
  • Copenhagen Academy
France
  • IFM Paris (Institut Français de la Mode)
  • IFA Paris
  • Ecole de la Chambre Syndicale de la Couture Parisienne
  • ESMOD
  • Studio Berçot
Georgia
  • Tbilisi State Academy of Arts
Germany
  • AMD Academy of Fashion and Design
  • Berlin University of the Arts
  • HTW Berlin
  • University of the Arts Bremen
  • Kunstakademie Düsseldorf
  • Giebichenstein Castle Academy of Arts in Halle
  • Academy of Fine Arts, Karlsruhe
  • Academy of Fine Arts, Munich
  • Academy of Fine Arts, Nuremberg
  • Design Hochschule Schwerin & Leipzig
Ireland
  • Limerick School of Art and Design
  • National College of Art and Design
India
  • National Institute of Fashion Technology
  • Amity University
  • Pearl Academy of Fashion
  • Apeejay Institute of Design
  • Raffles Design International, Mumbai
Italy
  • Istituto Marangoni
  • Politecnico of Milan
  • Istituto Europeo di Design
  • University Iuav of Venice
Israel
  • Shenkar College of Engineering and Design
Japan
  • Bunka Fashion College
  • Sugino Fashion College
Pakistan
  • Pakistan Institute of Fashion and Design
Romania
  • Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iași
  • George Enescu University of Arts of Iași
  • Art and Design University of Cluj-Napoca
  • West University of Timișoara - Faculty of Fine Arts and Design
  • Turkey
  • IFA Paris
  • Izmir University of Economics
England
  • Central Saint Martin’s College of Art and Design
  • Condé Nast College of Fashion & Design
  • Royal College of Art
  • Kingston University
  • London College of Fashion
  • University of Westminster
  • Ravensbourne College of Design and Communication
  • University of Brighton
  • De Montfort University
  • Richmond University
  • Bradford College
  • University for the Creative Arts (Rochester & Epsom)
Scotland
  • Heriot-Watt School of Textiles and Design, Edinburgh
  • The Glasgow School of Art
  • Edinburgh College of Art
United States
  • Parsons The New School for Design in New York City, New York
  • Fashion Institute of Technology in New York City, New York
  • Savannah College of Art and Design in Savannah, Georgia
  • Drexel University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • Pratt Institute in New York City, New York
  • Rhode Island School of Design in Providence, Rhode Island
  • Kent State University in Kent, Ohio
  • Otis College of Art & Design in Los Angeles, California
  • California College of the Arts in San Francisco, California
  • Philadelphia University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • Academy of Art University in San Francisco, California
  • Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising in Los Angeles, California
  • School of the Art Institute of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois
  • Columbus College of Art and Design in Columbus, Ohio
  • Columbia College Chicago in Chicago, Illinois
  • El Centro College in Dallas, Texas
  • Middle Tennessee State University in Murfreesboro, Tennessee
  • O'More College of Design in Franklin, Tennessee
  • Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond, Virginia
  • Woodbury University in Burbank, California
  • Lasell College in Newton, Massachusetts
Elsewhere in the world, Shih Chien University and Fu Jen Catholic University in Taiwan and the Asian University chain, Raffles College of Design and Commerce, all offer fashion design courses.

There are many universities that offer fashion design throughout the United States, usually within the context of a general liberal arts degree. The major concentration incorporating fashion design may have alternative names like Apparel and Textiles or Apparel and Textile Design, and may be housed in departments such as Art and Art History, or Family and Consumer Studies. Some schools, such as Parsons, offer a major in Fashion Management, combining fashion education with business courses.

CONCLUSION - Fashion and identity are inseparable companions. Fashion with all its symbolism and attributes form an outstanding base for personal and cultural identification. Identity is a necessary process of a healthy personality as it is a part of self-realization of a person that is so much required for finding a place in life of every person. Fashion has become a tool for achieving harmony with the inner world and a way of revealing or concealing peculiarities. Fashion possesses a specific meaning and the more diverse is the society around us the more fashion-trend will appear and surprise us. As long as it does not hurt people around fashion symbols are acceptable, nevertheless while thinking about fashion and identity it is necessary to remember the ethical side of the issue. Fashion and identity through it still remains a twofold issue but there are a lot of positive aspects one can enjoy and share with other people.

REFERENCES –
  1. http://www.custom-essays.org/samples/Fashion_and_Identity.html
  2. http://www.textileworld.com/Issues/2015/_2014/Fiber_World/Man-Made_Fibers_Continue_To_Grow
  3. http://study.com/articles/Apparel_Designer_Career_Information_for_Becoming_a_Fashion_and_Apparel_Designer.html
  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fashion_design
  5. https://www.google.co.in/search

Published by-
Swatz Swati
Email: teenabbsr@gmail.com
 

Lines: As Optical Illusion on Dress

Lines Aligned to Look Fine
Vaishally Verma and Prerna Kapila
B.Sc. in Fashion Designing
College of Home Science
Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India
Email: vaishally.verma@gmail.com





In this era of style and execution everyone wants to present themselves as perfect to the world. Confidence is the main factor required to win the game. But many a times is what we love the most about a dress won't suit and look best on our built as our body is changing throughout the years, because we put on weight or lose weight that may lead to change in our body shape. An undesirable body shape will act as confidence reducing agent. But today is the world where every problem is born with its solution. Improper body shapes can be shown as perfect bodies by creating optical illusions for viewers and will always make you look and feel the best no matter the occasion and age. Therefore our dress style will change in regards how to create visual balance in our body silhouette.

Lines: As optical illusion
Optical illusions are best created by different types of lines. The amazing thing is that a bulgy part of the body can be hidden with silhouettes and heaviness can be shown on some parts by adding designer lines in the form of pleats, tucks, seams and necklines. Physiologically, lines make the eyes twist and control our brain in such a way that our eyes follow and fix on the design. When lines come together (converge), the eyes follow them to the point at which they meet and become a focal point making that part of your body look smaller. Conversely, when lines move away (diverge) from each other, the eyes follow them to the end, which become a focal point, and make you look wider. So the idea is to have lines come together or move away from each other to that point on your body that you either want to look smaller or wide. Thick line conveys strength and alertness while thin line implies firmness and stability in one’s character. There are an infinite number of physical features and each person has their own unique combination of these.

Types of lines
The illusion of balance and proportion can be created with basic knowledge of some important style lines. The lines are classified as Structural or Designer or Printed.
  • Structural lines are the silhouettes that provide the outline and basic structure to the dress. For example: A- line, sheath, empire etc. 
  • Designer Lines not only adds beauty and details in the dress but also their placement and types allows a person to emphasize on desired part or hide the bulgy part. It is the design added to the structure of dress. E.g.; tucks, gathers, pleats, princess seams or panels, hem lines etc.
  • Printed Lines are referred to the prints of fabric that symbolizes many things and helps to look lean, heavy, long or short. These are of different types like vertical lines, horizontal lines, diagonal lines, curved lines etc.
Vertical lines
Vertical lines give the impression of height and slimness when repeated at equal intervals by leading the eyes from top to bottom.Vertical lines close together will make you thinner while two vertical lines far apart will make you look wider. Avoid placing vertical lines at unflattering points. E.g. bigger hips and/or thighs- never a good option for pears. Apples and women with fuller tummies should stay away from any detail that adds more volume or brings the wrong attention to this area.Vertical lines include pressed pleats, vertical tucks, buttoned front closures, V-necklines and vertical visible seams, such as a princess seam.

Although vertical lines in clothing may be created by stripes, vertical lines can also be created by seam lines, panels, hemlines, pleats, tucks etc. in clothing that run up and down.

Individual height, arm and leg length must be strong considerations in selecting the location of your hemlines and lengths.

When wearing striped clothing, take into consideration that stripes that are too wide may not be in proportion with a petite frame. Also, too many stripes may appear too overwhelming for petites. You wouldn't want to wear a striped blouse with striped pants, for example. However, a striped dress, if the style is right for your body type, may work very well. Suits in neutral colors with pinstripes can be good investment pieces because you can wear the suit pieces either together or as separates to expand your work wardrobe.

Horizontal lines

Horizontal lines tend to broaden and shorten the figure by emphasizing width. They divide height, especially when more than one line is used at a time.Avoid placing horizontals at unflattering points e.g. bigger bust, fuller tummy and thighs or the wrong sort of attention can be drawn to this part of the body.They are great for pears, women with a long waist and those who are flat chested. They will shorten a longer waist, add volume to the top for pears and create curves for flat chested women.Styles that accent the horizontal line are: yokes, wide waistbands, extended shoulders, bateau necklines dropped and empire waistlines. 
 
The only exception might be when the horizontal stripes are confined to a small area on a garment and are framed on each side by either solid color or vertical stripes. Example, a camisole with horizontal stripes might be worn under a solid colored V-neck sweater. Although very slender runway models and very tall women can often get away with wearing horizontal stripes, short women will look better in clothing that emphasizes vertical line.

Diagonal Line
A Diagonal Line can have two effects, depending on whether it is at a more vertical or horizontal angle.Eyes always move from the upper to the lower end of a diagonal line.A shorter diagonal (more horizontal) will cause the eye to move quickly from one end of the line to the other, creating an illusion of width.On the other hand, the longer diagonal (more vertical) will lead the eye more slowly, creating a longer, thinner appearance. Remember, for the most pleasing results, the diagonal should follow the same direction the eyes move: from left to right, top to bottom.The rules are the same as for horizontals and verticals in regards to who should avoid what. Also women with a short waist or women with an unbalanced body shape need to be very cautious of wearing this design line.

Diagonal lines can also help create a flattering fashion illusion, although usually it's a softer, curvier feel, which can be very effective, depending on the style of the garment. Chevron stripes work well because they create a series of flattering V-shapes, which makes petites look longer and leaner.

Curved Lines
It produces the same effect as straight line of similar placement. Curves add beauty to the garment and the tailor’s style like frills, flounces. The visual impact is softer and more graceful. Curved lines can be used to re-emphasize or define your figure because the female body is naturally curved. Often a less desirable straight line can be modified into a more appealing curved line. Produce the same illusion as straight lines; however, curves are more flattering in clothing. The curved line used in the bodice seam of front closures creates the illusion of softness, while a horizontal or vertical line is more pronounced.

These are not suggested to use in men’s wear as it is more feminine and it shows gentleness and smoothness.

Zigzag Lines
This is a mixture of different emotions such as erratic, intense, abrupt, fun, busy, Confusing and diverse. Visually it is the eye catching nut and the person’s character cannot be defined as zigzags create confusions in one at the sight of it. These lines are perfectly creates illusion for hour glass figure.
Fig: Zigzag line on dress
Perfect dress on body contributes to quality of life and pleasure and satisfaction from human sensation through experience of sight. Fashion and style will allow for flexibility and creativity. There is a unique method of looking for lines that will create balance and harmony in your overall personality. Creation of illusion to gain perfect dress fit for all the body types to look smart with the use of different lines assembles the happiness and confidence of the wearer to execute its perfection to the world and go ahead to enhance its ambitions.