An Overview of the Jute Industry of India


Associate Professor (SFDA)
Hindustan University, Chennai
Cell: +91-9283182955

Jute is the second important fibre crop of India, next to cotton crop. Now-a-days in the world market Jute is in great demand because of the cheapness, softness, strength, length, lustre and uniformity of its fibre.

Jute is used for producing a huge variety of utility products like gunny bags, hessian, ropes, strings, carpets, rugs and clothes, tarpaulins, upholstery and decoration pieces. In recent time jute fibre is also used to manufacturing men’s shirting materials and women’s sarees, salwar-khameez material, after making softness process of the fibre. Linen fabrics are now a days introduced in the textile market of India
Jute industry of India
Jute industry of India
Conditions of Growth:
Jute is normally the crop of hot and humid climate. It needs the high temperature varying from 24°C to 35°C and heavy rainfall of 120 to 150 cm with 80 to 90 per cent relative humidity during the period of its growth Small amount of pre-monsoon rainfall varying from 25 cm to 55 cm is very much useful .It helps in the proper growth of the jute plant up to the reach of the appropriate monsoon. Incessant and untimely rainfalls as well as prolonged droughts are detrimental to this crop. Rainfall between 2.5 to 7.5 cm in a month is required,During the sowing period is considered to be much enough.

In addition to this, Occasional showers varying from 2 to 3 cm at intervals of a week’s time during the growing period are considered to be important. Abundant amount of water is required not only for growing the jute crop but also for handling the fibre after the crop is harvested.

Light sandy or clayey muds are considered to be good suited soils for jute. Since jute rapidly drains the fertility of soil, it is compulsory that the soil is refilled yearly by the silt-laden flood water of the rivers. Huge supply of inexpensive labour is also necessary for increasing and processing the jute fibre.

Technique of Cultivating and Treating of Jute:
Jute is commonly sown in February on lowlands and in March-May on uplands. The crop takes 8- 10 months to mature but different varieties take the altered time to mature. The harvesting period usually starts in July and last still the month of October.

The plants are cut to the ground and tied into bundles. Sheaves of jute stocks are then engrossed in flood water or ponds or stagnant water for about 2 to 3 weeks for retting. High temperature of water accelerates the process of retting. After retting is complete, the bark is peeled from the plant and fibre is removed.

After this, stripping, rinsing, washing and cleaning is done and the fibre is dried in the sun and pressed into bales. All this process is to be done by human hand.availability of plenty of labour at low-cost rates is very much important. Coincidentally, this workforce is readily available because jute is cultivated in areas of high population density.

India agonized a great obstruction in the production of jute as a result of partition of the country in 1947 because about 75 per cent of the jute producing areas went to Bangladesh (East Pakistan at that time) Providentially, most of the jute mills remained in India. Energetic efforts were made to growth of the production and area of jute, instantaneously after partition to nourish our ravenous jute mills in the wake of short supply of raw jute.

After this interval the area under jute cultivation varied between 0.8 million hectares and 0.9 million hectares. The overall increase in jute production, in spite of jute zone remaining more or less the same, is principally due to the increase in yields.

The yield of jute almost doubled from 1,183 kg/hectare in 1960- 61 to 2,183 kg/hectare in 2003-04. This is a great achievement keeping in view the geographical limitations under which jute cultivation can be carried on.

Besides 0.5 million people are involved in raw jute and finished goods trading and ancillary activities. Currently India accounts for about 66 per cent of world jute production as compared to only 25 per cent produced by Bangladesh.

R&D work is carried by the farming experts during the last few years has not only resulted in increasing yield of the fibre but also in improvement of the fibre quality and shortening of cultivation period.


1. West Bengal:
West Bengal is the acknowledged ruler of jute production in India accounting for over four-fifths of the production and nearly three-fourths of the area under jute. Here hot and humid climate and alluvial, loamy soil attached with cheap abundant labour provide the par excellence conditions for the growth of jute.

Nevertheless, major part of the production comes from Nadia, Murshidabad, 24 Parganas, Coochbehar, Jalpaiguri, Hugli, West Dinajpur, Bardhaman, Maldah and Medinipur districts. The entire jute production is consumed in the jute mills located in the Hugli basin.

2. Bihar:
Bihar is the second largest producer but lagging far behind West Bengal in the production of jute accounting only for about 9.72 per cent of the production and over 17 per cent of the area of the country under jute. Purnea is the largest producing district accounting for 60 per cent of Bihar s production. Katihar, Saharsa and Darbhanga are the other producing districts.

3. Assam:
With about 6.68 per cent of the production and 7.88 per cent of the area of the country, Assam is the third largest jute producing state of India. The main concentration is in the Brahmaputra and Surma valleys. Goalpara, Kamrup, Nowgong, Darrang and Sibsagar are the main producing districts.

Among the other producers, is Orissa, where Cuttack, Puri and Bolangir are the main producers. In Uttar Pradesh, areas along the Himalayan foothills including Kheri, Bahraich and Sitapur districts are the main producers. Some jute is also produced in Maharashtra, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Tripura, Meghalaya and Andhra Pradesh.

India’s production of jute always falls short of her requirements and it is imported to feed our jute mills. Bangladesh is the chief supplier of jute to India. There are year to year oscillations in the quantity and value of jute imported by India.

Being a natural fibre, jute is biodegradable and as such “environment friendly”. The principal products can be reused and, as a result, many have a secondary value for other users. Despite such positive features, the world market for jute has remained depressed. The major cause of such a situation is the growth of alternates like plastic.

Process Sequence of Garment (Sweater) Operation Breakdown

Process Sequence of Garment (Sweater) Operation Breakdown

Muhammad Rahat
Dept. of Knitwear Manufacturing Technology
BGMEA University of Fashion & Technology (BUFT)

Sweater Operation Breakdown
Breakdown is a listing of the content of a job by elements. A garment consists of some parts and some group of operations. Breakdown means to writing down all parts and all process/operation after one another lying with the complete garment according to process sequence.

1st Step: - Needle Selection from both needle bed.

2nd Step: - Needle setting for rib as per buyer’s requirement

Needle setting by needle selection device

3rd Step: - Prepare rib height by course (c/s) say 10 c/s (Based on WPI, CPI)

4th Step: - Loop transfer from back needle bed to front needle bed

Needle loop transfer from back to front needle bed by transfer comb.

5th Step: - After transferring the loops knot up to armhole point by number of course.

6th Step: - Prepare armhole point by decreasing or increasing – decreasing both demands on styling.

7th Step: - Side by side prepare neck drop and finish up to neck line/ shoulder line.

8th Step: -

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Tragic Fire Incidence in Garment Industry and the Moments for Live Telecast

Tragic fire incidence & the moments for live telecast

Mohammad Nurul Alam
Senior Merchandiser | Asmara BD Pvt. Ltd. | Dhaka | Bangladesh
Cell: +8801930540035,
E-mail: /

The person was rescued from gravels & stones. He was injured seriously & in a life & death situation. Then came another person holding a microphone & camera. He came near & asked - how you feel? Yes, I am talking about big industrial incidence that happen in Bangladesh. Rana plaza tragedy still haunting us. But it was a scenario that mentioned above when a journalist ask this question to seriously injured person. No matter what he asked but the matter is live telecast. So his rational feeling never hold his back to prevent asking stupid question.
Fire in Tongi
Actually why this old matters came again? The reason is recent fire incident that happen at the Tongi in a garment industry. This is a very tragic fire incidence when everyone is preparing for 2nd Eid holiday. I was surprisingly shocked to imagine what the future impact waiting for us in the apparel industry. So very scared for childish activities that our media is doing in name of live telecast.

I am not agree to hide any ting when a garment owner responsible for death of working people. The person who never think of life risk & safety he must be punished by the laws. So that other apparel manufacturers must think about safety & don't push the life in risk in name of profit. If he fails to offer proper businesses procedures then he should not come in the garment businesses. Because we don't want to loss life even if he or she is very ordinary worker. This should not be allowed to throw whole garment industry in challenge & big risk for a few profit maker.

My topic was live telecast for any serious incidence that should not be spread panic among the common people. Even some time this may bring worse situation. The Gulshan tragedy is the best examples when terrorists are watching the live telecast & updating themselves then the situation gone towards worse. Because terrorists want the news should be spread throughout of the world & our media is doing the same unconsciously what they are trying to do. Very funny!!

Now come to live telecast of Tongi incidence. I was watching the TV news then came to know about the tragic accident & loss of casualties. But the reporter is seeming talking unnecessary. He is talking to person who is crossing him. The reporter stop him & asked - do you know what happened? How fire caught & how many people died? The passerby as he himself watching the fire work he give answer what is rumored. Many people died! Many injured! This a big fire. OK then the report tried to catch a fire worker who is trying to extinguish fire. Hi man, can you tell us what happen? The fire man was so busy that he could not show his face in front of camera. The reporter continuing his nonstop report. What supposed to be, what may happen, what is the loss like this many update. Surprisingly everything is coming from his own explanation & imagination. No authorized person is saying what is the loss & how the fire happen & why.

This is actually our media trends. Everyone is trying to give latest update. So talk more & make the situation worse even if it is bad for overall business. Actually every single tragic incidence keeping us scared for our apparel business. Gulshan tragedy, the wound is still not cured where apparel personnel lost life. The new fire incidence again a big shock in the industry. We don't know what is waiting next but should have to think for overall business as well as to punish responsible for tragic incidence.

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Copy-Paste Worksheet, A Big Reason for Big Mistake in Merchandising

Copy-paste work sheet, a big reason for big mistake
Mohammad Nurul Alam
Senior Merchandiser | Asmara BD Pvt. Ltd. | Dhaka | Bangladesh
Cell: +8801930540035,
E-mail: /

Generally when merchandiser goes for any booking he takes old worksheet by copy-paste for new work order, suppose accessories or fabric booking format. This is easy to prepare the booking by changing some figure on the sheet. But sometime this can be big disaster for the order. If I am not wrong very few merchandiser can be exception who did not do mistake because of copy paste worksheet reason. In my early career I had also bitter experience that happen due to copy-paste problem.
Worksheet preparation by merchandiser (Symbolic picture)
I can remember it was a booking for single poly. As usual I have taken an old worksheet to go for new work order. Yes, I completed the booking & waiting for poly when it will be in-housed. Finally when time arrives for packing then I realized my mistake. I had changed everything on the old worksheet but forgot to change poly Quantity. The order require twelve thousands poly bag but as old worksheet mentioned three thousand then poly in-housed only three thousand. That means nine thousands poly bag still require to pack for whole of the order. It was very bad situation for me. I was scared & nervous because if the goods not shipped in the next day, goods will air. The worse things happen that the next day was Friday & we were on the Thursday evening. So poly supplier was closed for Friday. However it was very tough to manage everything & finally goods went by sea. The mistake was very simple- quantity was not changed on the worksheet but the suffering was huge just not for me but for everyone those are related with that order. So everyone should have to be careful when using old work sheet for any new booking.

What should have to do when working on old worker sheet?

1. Take a fresh worksheet :
Never take old work sheet rather take fresh work sheet where nothing is mentioned as example no style name, order no, quantity. The worksheet will be just a copy for format only.

2. High light the area where need to change.
If it is excel sheet then put particular color in cell that you can easily understand the cell need to change or put something. Suppose order no, style name, fabrication, required quantity so that the possibility to forget the figure will be less.

3. Cross check for the sheet :
Cress checks means just to see some particular figure. Suppose – correct quality. In my above mistake the problem was in the quantity but not in quality or sizes so additional quantity was needed only. On the other hand if quality is not correct then everything will be disaster. One of my colleague forgot to change quality so put single jersey instead of 1x1 rib fabric then happen the worse thing in his career.

4. Ask co-worker just to have a look
When work-order is ready then take help from co-worker & ask him/her just to have a look on the sheet so that he/she can find something what is overlooked.

5. Don’t be hurry
Need to take extra time before releasing the work sheet so that anything error can be identified. It was said when bullet was thrown from the pistol then nothing left to do so before releasing the bullet should have to confirm the target point.

6. Checking over & over

I know my work order is perfect & so sleeping quietly putting oil in the nose. So relax!! Then came the bad day & left some lesson. So before the final hour comes need to check again & again if anything still requires changing.

7. To be cool when work sheet preparing

Doing the booking in cool mind is really necessary to avoid any kinds of big mistake.

Hope form next we always try to avoid not to do same mistake in future to keep secure the job as well asto enhance career.

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