Free Download Latest Books on Technical Textile, Fiber, Spinning, Fabric, Weaving, Knitting, Garments, Fashion, Design, Dyeing, Printing and Finishing

Textile is the ancient branch of engineering. Now textile engineering study is becoming more demand-able then before. Because textiles have not only used for wearing but also hugely used in different sectors like as technical textile. Many research works are being done on textile. But doing research anything it needs huge information. Books have not alternative of information. But price of every book is out of range such like us third world country’s people. For fulfillment the demand of information I will give a list of textile books. All books I have collected from my friends and fans who are studying in different famous universities around the world. I think these books will be helpful for students, researchers, businessmen, entrepreneurs as well as all people who are interested to know about textile. 


Warning: If you want to get any book from the following list then you must have to publish Article or Assignment or Project work in this blog for promoting purpose. Without these please don't send email.


Books on Technical Textile/Updated Textile

Woodhead Publishing Series Books:
  1. Textiles for Protection
  2. Advanced Textiles for Wound Care
  3. Advances in Fire Retardant Materials
  4. Advances in military textiles and personal equipment
  5. Advances in Textile Biotechnology
  6. Applications of Nonwovens in Technical Textiles
  7. Biodegradable and Sustainable Fibres
  8. Biologically Inspired Textiles
  9. Biomechanical Engineering of Textiles & Clothing
  10. Clothing Biosensory Engineering
  11. Coated & Laminated Textiles
  12. Ecotextiles The Way Forward for Sustainable Development in Textiles
  13. Engineering Textiles - Intergrating The Design and Manufacture of Textile Products
  14. Fibrous and Composite Materials for Civil Engineering Applications
  15. Friction in Textile Materials
  16. Functional Textiles for Improved Performance
  17. Hand book of medical textile
  18. Handbook of Geosynthetics
  19. Handbook of nonwovens
  20. Handbook of Sustainable Textile Production
  21. Handbook of Technical Textile
  22. Intelligent Textiles & Clothing
  23. Intelligent Textiles and Clothing for Ballistic and NBC Protection
  24. Intelligent Textiles for Personal Protection & Safety
  25. Interior Textiles - Design and Developments
  26. Military Textiles
  27. Modelling and Predicting Textile Behaviour
  28. Nanofibers and Nanotechnology in Textiles
  29. Performance of Home Textiles
  30. Plasma technologies for textiles
  31. Recycling in Textiles
  32. Recycling textile and plastic waste
  33. Shape Memory Polymer & Textiles
  34. Smart Clothes and Wearable Technology
  35. Smart Fibres, Fabrics & Clothing
  36. Smart Textile Coatings and Laminates
  37. Smart Textiles for Medicine & Healthcare - Materials, Systems & Applications
  38. Soft Computing in Textile Engineering
  39. Surface modification of textiles
  40. Sustainable Textiles - Life Cycle and Environmental Impact
  41. Textile Advances in The Automotive Industry
  42. Textile Processing with Enzymes
  43. Textiles for Cold Weather Apparel
  44. Textiles for Hygiene and Infection Control
  45. Textiles in Automotive Engineering
  46. Textiles in Sport
  47. Textiles, polymers and composites for buildings
  48. Training and development of technical staff in the textile industry
  49. Wearable Electronics & Photonics
  50. Weaving of 3D fabrics A critical appreciation of the developments
  51. Handbook of Tensile Properties of Textile and Technical Fibres
  52. Textile Reference Book of Nonwovens
Another Publishing Series Books:
  1. Coating Substrates and Textiles
  2. Geotextiles in transportation applications
  3. Biofunctional Textiles and the Skin
  4. Coated Textiles Principles and Applications
  5. Introduction to nanotechnology
  6. Advances in Construction Materials
  7. Coated Textile
  8. Engineering Use of GeoTextile
  9. Nanocomposite Science and Technology
  10. Health aspects of flame retardants in textile
  11. Technical Textile Class Notes
  12. Textile Composites and inflatable structures
  13. Adaptive and functional polymers, textiles and their applications
  14. Multifunctional Barriers for Flexible Structure
  15. Survey of technical textile

Books on Dyeing/Printing/Finishing

Woodhead Publishing Series Books:
  1. Handbook of Textile and Industrial Dyeing, Volume 1
  2. Handbook of Textile and Industrial Dyeing, Volume 2
  3. Basic Principles of Textile Coloration
  4. Fundamentals and Practices in Colouration of Textiles
  5. Total Colour Management in Textiles
  6. Recent Advances in Environmentally Compatible Polymers
  7. Environmental aspects of textile dyeing
  8. Colour Measurement - Principles, Advances and Industrial Applications
  9. Environmental Aspects of Textile Dyeing
  10. Environmental Impact of Textiles
  11. Handbook of Worsted Wool and Blended Suiting Process
  12. Chemical Finishing of Textiles
  13. Digital Printing of Textiles
Another Publishing Series Books:
  1. Chemical Technology in the Pre-Treatment Processes of Textiles,
  2. Functional Dyes
  3. Batchwise dyeing of cellolosic fabrics
  4. Blends dyeing
  5. Cellulosic dyeing
  6. Chemistry & Technology of fabric preparation & finishing
  7. Color in dye house effluent
  8. Colorants & auxiliaries volume (1)
  9. Colorants & auxiliaries volume (2)
  10. Color for textiles
  11. Dyeing and Chemical Technology of Textile Fibers
  12. Dyes & Pigments
  13. Industrial and Hazardous Wastes Treatment
  14. Industrial Dyes
  15. Practical Dyeing Volume 1
  16. Practical Dyeing Volume 3
  17. Singeing fundamentals
  18. Textiles Dyeing and Printing-I
  19. Textile Dyeing and Printing-II
  20. The Chemistry of Dyeing
  21. Water recycling
  22. Wool dyeing
  23. Industrial and Hazardous Wastes Treatment
  24. Colour-Chemistry
  25. Encyclopedia Of Textile Finishing
  26. Reference book of Finishing
  27. Textile Finishing Chemicals
  28. Textile finishing
  29. Textile printing

Books on Fiber

Woodhead Publishing Series Books:
  1. High-performance fibres
  2. New Millennium Fibres
  3. Smart Fibres, Fabrics & Clothing
  4. Identification of Textile Fibers
  5. Physical Properties of Textile Fibres (4th Edition)
  6. Cotton Science and technology
  7. Physical properties of textile fibres
  8. Advanced Fiber Spinning Technology
  9. Advances In Polymer Science 178 - Polymeric & Inorganic Fibers
  10. Advances in Wool technology
  11. Atlas of Fibre Fracture and Damage to Textiles
  12. Bast and other plant fibres
  13. Biodegradable and Sustainable Fibres
  14. Fatigue Failure of Textile Fibres
  15. Handbook of Fibre Rope Technology
  16. Handbook of natural fibres volume1
  17. Handbook of natural fibres volume2
  18. Handbook of Tensile Properties of Textile and Technical Fibres
  19. Handbook of Textile Fibre Structure, Volume 1
  20. Handbook of Textile Fibre Structure, Volume 2
  21. Handbook of Worsted Wool and Blended Suiting Process
  22. Multifunctional Barriers for Flexible Structure
  23. Polyesters & Polyamides
  24. Regenerated Cellulose Fibers
  25. Silk, mohair, cashmere and other luxury fibres
  26. Synthetic Fibres - Nylon, Polyester,
  27. Wool - Science & Technology
Another Publishing Series Books:
  1. Dyeing and Chemical Technology of Textile Fibres
  2. Fiber Dictionary
  3. Handbook of fiber chemistry
  4. Reference book for man made fibers

Books on Spinning

Woodhead Publishing Series Books:
  1. Advances in yarn spinning technology
  2. Handbook of Yarn Production
  3. A Practical Guide to Quality Management in Spinning
  4. Advanced Fiber Spinning Technology
  5. Yarn Texturing Technology
  6. False twist textured yarns - Principles, processes and applications
  7. Fancy yarns
  8. High speed spinning of polyester and its blends with viscose
Another Publishing Series Books:
  1. Cotton Spinning Calculation and Yarn Cost
  2. Fundamentals-of-spun-yarn-technology
  3. Reference book for spinning
  4. Textile calculation
  5. Yarn count & Calculation

Books on Fabric/Design/Weaving/Knitting

Woodhead Publishing Series Books:
  1. Design & Manufacture of Textile Composites
  2. Advances in Carpet Manufacture
  3. Smart Fibres, Fabrics & Clothing
  4. Effect of Mechanical & Physical Properties on Fabric Hand
  5. Fundamentals of designing for textiles and other end uses
  6. Sizing in Clothing
  7. Structure & Mechanics of Woven Fabrics
  8. Woven Textile Structure - Theory and Applications
  9. Knitting Technology
  10. Advances in Knitting Technology
  11. Fundamentals and advances in knitting technology
Another Publishing Series Books:
  1. Nonwoven-Fabrics
  2. Handbook of Weaving
  3. Mastering Weave Structures
  4. Reference books of weaving
  5. Textile Sizing
  6. A Handbook of Weaves
  7. Fabric Structure Design
  8. Handbook of textile design
  9. Basics Fashion Design - Sourcing Ideas
  10. Basics Fashion Design - Textiles and Fashion
  11. Textile - Reference Book for Knitting

Books on Garments/Merchandising/Fashion

Woodhead Publishing Series Books:
  1. Advances in Apparel Production
  2. Industrial engineering in apparel production
  3. Computer Technology for Textiles and Apparel
  4. New product development in textiles
  5. Quality Characterization of Apparel
  6. Engineering Apparel Fabrics and Garments
  7. Humidification and Ventilation Management in Textile Industry
  8. Management of Technology Systems in Garment Industry
  9. Science in Clothing Comfort
  10. Sizing in Clothing
  11. Smart Clothes and Wearable Technology
  12. Smart Fibres, Fabrics & Clothing
  13. Soft Computing in Textile Engineering
  14. Statistics for textile and apparel management
  15. The global textile and clothing industry
Another Publishing Series Books:
  1. Understanding textile for a merchandiser
  2. Career in Textile and Fashion Designing
  3. Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion
  4. Beginning garment making
  5. Embroidering Identities- A Century of Palestinian Clothing
  6. Fashionable Technology
  7. Sewing machine classroom
  8. The Apparel Industry
  9. Yarn and cloth making

Books on Textile Testing
  1. Fabric Testing
  2. Identification of Textile Fibers
  3. Physical Testing of Textiles
  4. A Practical Guide to Quality Management in Spinning
  5. Chemical Testing of Textiles
  6. Effective Implementation of Quality Management Systems

Books on Textile Chemistry
  1. Shape Memory Polymer & Textiles
  2. Chemical Technology in the Pre-Treatment Processes of Textiles,
  3. Advances in Polymer Science
  4. Chemical_Technology_of_Textile_Fibres
  5. Chemistry & Technology of fabric preparation & finishing
  6. Chemistry of the Textile Industry
  7. Handbook of fiber chemistry
  8. The_Chemistry_of_Dyeing
  9. Textile & Paper Chemistry & Technology
  10. Colour-Chemistry

Other Books
  1. Textile Engineering
  2. Textiles Technology
  3. Advance in Textile Engineering
  4. Basic Textile Technology
  5. C programme
  6. KOTLER - Marketing Management, Millennium Edition
  7. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
  8. Textiles Industry
  9. The italian textile machinery industry
Without of these books I have also many old books and huge collection of research papers, reports, presentations, assignments, project works. All things only for textile learners.

How to get Books?
For students, lecturers, professors who write good article there is a bonus. Please contact the editor.


Contact Details:
Mazharul Islam Kiron
Cell: +88 01724 752452
E-mail: textilelearners@gmail.com
Dhaka, Bangladesh








Factors Affecting Appearance After Wash Test Result

Factors Affecting Appearance After Wash Test Result
Md. Shafiqul Islam (Newton)
Manager soft lines
Epyllion Testing lab ltd
Gazipur , Dhaka, Bangladesh
Email: newton@epylliongroup.com




Consumer buys textiles such as clothing fabric, bed linen, home furnishings or any other related material. He or she expects it to perform satisfactorily during use in terms of color stability and appearance retention, including shape, pilling/fuzziness etc. The problems associated with durability of color and appearance on wet treatments such as washing and wet rubbing are of global nature, which eventually leads to consumer dissatisfaction and complaints.

Textile Fabric’s ability to retain its original color is one of the most important properties of a textile product. The colorfastness or color retention or appearance is influenced by a number of variables that occur both pre-consumer and post-consumer. Fiber Quality, yarn formation, fabric construction, textile wet processing. Of these variables, the choices made during textile wet processing have the most significant effect on the colorfastness properties. Dye selection is also of the utmost importance.

On the other hand consumer practices such as Washing Machine, detergent selection and laundering techniques also play a major role in the color retention of a fabric.

The following factors are considered important in the appearance after washing of garments:
  • Washing machines and washing programs.
  • Use of wash loads consisting of whites and colored.
  • Different fiber materials, such as cotton, polyester, nylon etc.
  • Low energy program in washing machines low liquor, low temperatures and higher detergent activity.
  • Ingredients of detergent formulations.
Below are most common detergent used in the world and all detergent have different formulation and ingredient that also have different characteristics can change the result due to OBA effect, alkaline properties, solubility etc .
Below different brands machine have different main wash time, rinse and final extraction depend on machine manufacturing but some time temperature is same.That also make different result .
LG                              Samsung                  Whirlpool                 Meile
Lab Technician performance: We cannot ignore the technician performance and work load that also make the result variations .We need to check the hue test of each and every assessor and also the report reviewer. Technician should have the hue test pass report to do assess. Have the minimum knowledge of fabric manufacturing, construction, dye combination, basic chemistry that are also the extra advantage for him/her.

Customer complain also make a confusion for the test result. As per care label and country of destination product should be go to that particular country and wash as per care label with standard machine .But we found sometime ,customer bought a garments from one country and send it to another country to his/her relatives where garments is not wash as per standard and got a confusing result.
 
More articles of this writer:
 
 

Practices Towards Green Apparel Product: Investigation on Environmental Issues at Different Stages of Knitted T-shirt Development (Part-5)

Practices Towards Green Apparel Product: Investigation on Environmental Issues at Different Stages of Knitted T-shirt Development (Part-5)
Mustaque Ahammed Mamun
Department of Textile Engineering
Dhaka University of Engineering & Technology (DUET)
Cell: +8801723300703
Email: mamuntex09@gmail.com


Previous Part


3.4.5 Apparel manufacturing


Measurement
  • Body length : 68 cm
  • ½ Chest : 43 cm
  • Sleeve length : 20cm
  • Arm hole circumference : 46cm
  • Neck circumference : 44cm
  • Back neck drop : 1cm
  • Front neck drop : 8cm
Process sequence
List of machine and materials
  • Pattern paper
  • Scissors
  • Sewing thread
  • Four thread overlock machine
  • Single needle lock stitch machine
  • Flat lock machine
Operation sequence of sewing

Table 3.5: Sewing operation sequence of T-shirt
Sl.No.
Operation
Machine
01
Shoulder join
OL4
02
Rib tuck
LS1
03
Rib join
OL4
04
Back tape join
LS1
05
Piping topsin
FL
06
Rib front topsin
FL
07
Sleeve join
OL4
08
Side seam join
OL4
09
Sleeve tuck
LS1
10
Body hem
LS1

3.4.6 Printing process
Fig 3.14: Design of print
Process sequence
Screen preparation
Raw materials
  • Screen frame
  • Screen gauge
  • Glass plate
  • Chrome gelatin solution
Recipe for preparing sensitive solution

Solution A:
  • Pure gelatin =200gm
  • Hot water =500gm
  • Total =700gm
Solution B:
  • Ammonium dichromate =70gm
  • Hot water =150gm
  • Liquor ammonia =80gm
  • Total =300gm
By mixing solution A and B in room temperature 1000gm sensitive solution was made.

Working procedure
To prepare the screen for printing photo chemical method was followed. At first the screen was treated with chrome gelatin and dried at room temperature to make the screen sensitive.A positive design was made on tracing paper by using opaque ink. Then the positive design was attached with the screen and the screen was placed in glass plate. After that light was passed through the glass plate. As light passed through the white portion of the positive design, gelatin of this portion became hard. On the other hand gelatin of opaque portion of the positive design remained soluble as light did not pass through this portion. Then removing the glass plate the screen was washed in hot water and then in cold water to remove the soluble gelatin from the screen.

Printing of knitted fabric (Organic cotton) with reactive dye (Avitera brand)

Stock thickener preparation procedure
  • CMC thickener = 5 parts
  • Water = 95 parts
  • Total = 100 parts
CMC was added into water while stirring and it was kept stirring for at least 20 minutes.

Preparation of print paste
  • Reactive dye (Avitera Brand) = 5 parts
  • Urea = 8 Parts
  • Resist salt = 1 Parts
  • Glycerin = 2 Parts
Then it was bulked to 100 parts by adding the thickener. Then paste was heated for 5 minutes and finally the paste was ready for printing.

Printing of knitted fabric (Conventional cotton) with reactive dye (Remazol brand)

Stock thickener preparation procedure
  • CMC thickener = 5 parts
  • Water = 95 parts
  • Total = 100 parts
CMC was added into water while stirring and it was kept stirring for at least 20 minutes.

Preparation of print paste
  • Reactive dye (Remazol Brand) = 5 parts
  • Urea = 8 Parts
  • Resist salt = 1 Parts
  • Glycerin = 2 Parts
Then it was bulked to 100 parts by adding the thickener. Then paste was heated for 5 minutes and finally the past was ready for printing.

Printing procedure
At first the sample was placed on the printing table and the screen was placed on the sample. After that print paste was poured on the screen and the paste was squeezed by using a squeezer. Then the sample was steamed at 102ºC for 2 minutes and curing was done at 130ºC for five minutes.

3.4.7 Hang tag
Normally necessary information like brand name, origin, product type is mentioned in a hang tag. Besides this some information to make aware the customer can be included in hang tag. A typical hang tag has been developed through which some information regarding environmental consciousness has been conveyed.
Figure 3.15: Images of Hang tag
3.5 Effluents testing procedure

3.5.1 Determination of DO, Conductivity and pH

Apparatus
  • Multimeter
  • pH Port
  • DO Port
  • Conductivity port
  • Beaker
  • Waste water
Testing procedure
Fig 3.16: DO determination by multimeter
Waste water is taken in a beaker. pH port, DO port and Conductivity port were set to multi meter for determining pH, DO and Conductivity respectively. Then the port was dipped into the waste water and kept for few seconds until the result was shown in the display. That pH, DO (mg/L) and conductivity (mS/cm) values were found directly from multi meter.

3.5.2 Determination of Alkalinity
The alkalinity of water is a measure of its capacity to neutralize acids. Alkalinity is measured volumetrically by titration with N/50 (i.e. 0.02 N) H2SO4 and is reported in terms of equivalent CaCO3.

Reagents
  • Phenolphthalein indicator
  • Standard 0.02 N H2SO4
  • Methyl orange indicator
Apparatus
  • Beaker
  • Measuring cylinder
  • Burette pillar
  • Magnetic Stirrer
Testing procedure
  1. At first 100ml of the sample is taken into a beaker.
  2. Then pH of the sample is determined.
  3. After that 3 drops of Phenolphthalein indicator is added to the sample. If the sample becomes pink then it is to follow step 4 otherwise to follow step 5.
  4. 0.02 N H2SO4 from a burette is to be added to the sample until the pink color just disappears. It is to record the ml. of the acid used.
  5. 3 drops of Methyl orange indicator are to be added to the sample. If the sample becomes yellow and 0.02 N H2SO4 acid until the first change in color is noted. The end point is slight orange tinge. It is to record the ml. of the acid used.
A                                                            B                                                        C
Fig 3.17: Alkalinity test 
 
Where,
A=200 times diluted dyeing effluents, B=Phenolphthalein indicator added solⁿ, C=0.02 N H2SO4 added solⁿ.

Calculation procedure

3.5.3 Measurement of BOD
BOD is the amount of oxygen used by aerobic bacteria to decompose organic material. This process may take place many days hence to standardize the measurement of BOD following standards are taken
  • Time (Incubation period): 5 days
  • Temperature: 20ºC
Apparatus
  • BOD Oxitop
  • BOD Incubator
  • Waste water
  • Distilled water
Fig 3.18: BOD Oxitop
Working procedure
  • Pure distilled water saturated with oxygen was taken in BOD Oxitop.
  • 5ml of polluted water+25ml of pure water was taken in another BOD Oxitop.
  • Then the both oxitop was kept for five days in BOD incubator at 20ºC.
  • Then dissolved oxygen of pure water and dilute impure water were measured after 5 days.
  • BOD was found from the difference in dissolved oxygen of two reading.
3.5.4 Measurement of COD
Any kind of chemically oxidizable impurities present in effluent is COD. It is the measure of both biologically oxidizable and biologically inert organic matter.

Apparatus
Fig 3.19: COD Reactor               Fig 3.20: COD Vial        Fig 3.21: UV Spectrophotometer
Working procedure
First effluents were taken in COD vial. Then the vial was kept in COD reactor at 150⁰C for 2 hours. Then the vial was put off from COD reactor and cooled in normal temperature. After that the sample was tested in UV spectrophotometer with respect to the fresh COD vial. Before testing the UV spectrophotometer was calibrated carefully. COD value in mg/L of the sample was found directly from UV spectrophotometer.

3.5.5 Determination of total solid dissolved solid and suspended solid
Total solid (TS) refers to the matter that remains as residue upon evaporation and drying at 103-105⁰C.The total solid includes total suspended solid (TSS)-the portion of the total solid retained by filter and total dissolved solid (TDS)-the portion that passes through the filter.

Apparatus
  • Beaker
  • Measuring cylinder
  • Funnel
  • Dropper
  • Filter paper
  • Oven
  • Electric balance 
Fig 3.22: Funnel & Filter Paper      Fig 3.23: Electric Balance       Fig 3.24: Sample after dried
Testing procedure

Total solids
  1. A clean glass beaker was taken (which was kept at 103ºC in an oven for 1 hour) of 150 ml capacity and also the weight of the beaker was taken.
  2. Then 100 ml of the sample was poured into the beaker.
  3. After that the beaker was placed in an oven maintained at 103ºC for 24 hours. Then cooling the beaker weight of the beaker was taken. Weight of the solid was found by subtracting this value from the weight of clean beaker.
Calculation
Total solids, TS (mg/l) = (mg of solids in the beaker×1000)/volume of sample

Dissolved solid
  1. A clean glass beaker was taken (which was kept at 103ºC in an oven for 1 hour) of 150 ml capacity and also the weight of the beaker was taken.
  2. 100 ml of the sample was taken and filtered it through a double layered filter paper and the filtrate was taken in a beaker.
  3. After that the beaker was placed in an oven maintained at 103ºC for 24 hours. Then cooling the beaker weight of the beaker was taken. Weight of the solid was found by subtracting this value from the weight of clean beaker.
Calculation
TDS (mg/l) = (mg of solids in the beaker×1000)/volume of sample

Suspended solid
Total suspended solid, TSS (mg/Lt) = TS (mg/L) – TDS (mg/L)

3.6 Physical Properties testing procedure

3.6.1 Color fastness to wash

Recipe
  • Soda ash (Na2CO3) : 2 g/L
  • ISO standard soap : 5 g/L
  • M:L :1:50
  • Time : 30
  • Temperature : 60ºC
  • Test method: ISO-105-CO3
Apparatus and materials
  • Gyrowash machine(Wash wheel)
  • Sample size (10cm×4cm)
  • Multi fiber fabric (5cm×4 cm)
  • Sewing machine
  • Color change grey scale
  • Color staining grey scale
  • Light box
Working procedure
A sample was cut. Then a multifiber fabric was attached to it by sewing. A solution was made according to the recipe mentioned above. The solution was taken into wash wheel. Then the sample was dipped into it. After that the wash wheel was set into Gyrowash machine and the machine was run for 30 minutes at 60ºC temperature. Then the sample was put off from the machine and rinsing, squeezing, removing of stitching, drying (in oven) were done sequentially. Color fastness of the sample i.e. color fading and color bleeding was checked using color change grey scale and color staining grey scale respectively. Both the evaluation was done under standard light using light box.

3.6.2 Color fastness to perspiration

Recipe
  • Histidine Monohydrochloride monohydrate (C6H9O2HClH2O) : 0.5 g
  • Sodium Chloride (NaCl) : 5g
  • Disodium hydrogen orthophosphate dehydrate (Na2HPO42H2O) : 2.5 g
Apparatus and materials
  • Perspirometer
  • Oven
  • Multifiber fabric
  • Grey scale
  • Sample size (10cm×4cm)
  • Multi fiber fabric (5cm×4 cm)
Test method: ISO-105-E04-1994(E)

Working procedure
A sample was cut. Then a multi fiber fabric was attached to it by sewing. A solution of 1000 ml was made by following the recipe mentioned above. Then the composite test sample dipped into the solution and kept for 30 minutes. Then the sample was taken off from the solution and was put into two glass plates of perspirometer. After that 12.5Kpa pressure was inserted onto the glass plates. Then the perspirometer wash kept in an oven for four hours at 37ºC temperature. Then the sample was put off from the oven. Color fastness of the sample i.e. color fading and color bleeding was assessed using color change grey scale and color staining grey scale respectively. Both the evaluation was done under standard light using light box.

3.6.3 Color fastness to rubbing

Apparatus and materials
  • a. Crockmeter
  • b. Sample size (15cm×4cm)
  • c. Rubbing cloth size (4cm×4 cm)
  • Color staining grey scale
  • Light box
  • Distilled water
Test method: AATCC Test method 8-2007

Working procedure
A sample having the dimension of 15cm×4cm was cut and then set in crockmeter. Then a rubbing cloth was fastened to the weighted finger. The finger was permitted to rub the sample 10 times by driving the handle. The work was done for wales direction. For wet rubbing the center portion of the rubbing cloth was wetted. The rubbing cloth wash compared with fresh rubbing cloth using color staining grey scale.

3.6.4 Fabric drapability test

Drape is the term used to describe the way a fabric hangs under its own weight. Fabric drapability is an important factor from an aesthetic point of view. The drape co-efficient has been developed to describe the degree of drape and drape shade. In actual test the light beam casts a shadow of the draped fabric onto a ring of highly uniformed translucent paper supported on a glass screen. The surface of drape pattern area on the paper ring is directly proportional to the mass of that area, so the drape co-efficient (F) can be calculated in the simple way.
A lower F value means the fabric is softer and its drapability is better. In other word, the higher the drape co-efficient, the stiffer the fabric is.

Apparatus and materials
  • Fabric drape tester
  • Translucent paper ring
  • Template (Diameter=18cm)
  • Fabric sample
  • Electric balance
Working procedure
In the test a circular specimen was held concentrically between two smaller horizontal discs and was allowed to drape into folds under its weight. A light was shown from underneath the specimen and the shadow that the fabric cast was traced onto an annular piece of paper, the same size as the unsupported part of the fabric specimen. The whole was weighted and then the shadow part of the ring was cut away weighted. Finally by using the formula mentioned above drape co-efficient was determined to assess the draping properties of the fabric.

3.6.5 Bursting strength test

Testing parameters
  • Machine name : Universal Strength tester
  • Test name : Ball burst
  • Test speed : 305 mm/min
  • Preload : 0.100 lb.
  • Diameter : 1.75 inches
  • Sample size : 5”×5”
  • Gauge length : 320cm(upper),220cm(lower)
  • Clamp dia : 4.5cm
Test method: ASTM-D-3787

Working procedure
At first ball burst attachment was set, required parameters for the test were set and also the machine was calibrated. Then the sample was set in the clamp. After that the machine was run. When the sample was burst due to the force applied by the attachment, the machine was automatically stopped and the machine gave direct reading of bursting strength of the sample. Same procedure was done for different sample and the result was taken.

3.6.6 Absorbency test

Drop test
In a pipette a solution of 0.1% direct red was taken and was dropped on the fabric on the fabric sample from 5cm above. Then the absorption of the color drop was observed visually and time in second to absorb one drop of solution was taken.

Spot test
In a pipette a solution of 0.1% direct red was taken and droplet of solution was put on the different places of the fabric. Then the shape of the absorbed area on the fabric was observed.
Fig 3.25: Absorbency test (Drop test) 

Where, 
1= Fabric of conventional cotton treated with NaOH

2=Fabric of organic cotton treated with enzyme

Next part will publish soon......