The Way of Smart Merchandising

The Way of Smart Merchandising
Muhammad Nurul Alam
Senior Merchandiser | Asmara BD Pvt. Ltd. | Dhaka | Bangladesh
Cell: +8801930540035
E-mail :

Do you know what is the working hour for a merchandiser in Bangladesh . Believe or not Merchandisers in Bangladesh are working more than 13-14 hours as regular job & some time much more . Always they are busy with hundreds of work schedule but nothing can be completed within office hour . So they have to stay in work place up-to late night . You can’t say this is only inefficiency of their profession because most of the time they are over loaded . The owners are having a cost minimizing tendency so they hire a Merchandiser instead of two or more without considering the demand of work load . As a result a merchandiser always fail to enjoy their regular life & gets tired . They loss their innovative force & feel exhausted in older years . We often see merchandiser who aged beyond 45-50 either loss their job or stay in the organization as a good for nothing . Owners don’t want to pay higher salary for him though they already have taken valuable energy ,time & work force in early age . This is really shocking that now they feel you are not to be used . Yes , right now we have to think how can take the best from our life period . Whatever the age we should have to keep energy & not to be exhausted . We can think for us from today & prepare a new deal for your career . To make easy & to be smarter merchandiser in our way of working please let us do something different . Today we are going to discuss how you can manage your thousands of job in a limited period of hours & can keep maximum energy .
Merchandiser work in office
Merchandiser work in office
1) Make a list of all your job:
This is very important what you are doing to keep it in your daily schedule . It would be better to make schedule 1st daily than weekly & finally monthly . Why this is important to do list ? First of all we are human being. So this is not possible to keep everything in our mind & to do the thing in priority basis . Usually a Merchandiser has to work through lots of stress as well as difficulties . For which this is not surprising if you see he is forgetting to do some most important task that should have to perform in first priority . The second thing is – when we see thousands of task that we have to perform within a very short period of time our nerves gets week . we feel exhausted & fatigue . So by the making schedule we can easily prioritize your task & get the most important & urgent thing .

The below diagram will help everyone to do list in the work priority . This may take little time to make your habit with the method but believe me the method is really effective .

Not Urgent
  1. Fabric booking
  2. Yarn procurement
  3. Price for new query
  4. PP sample submission
  1. Recape meeting with senior
  2. Production up-date
  3. Bulk Lot shade approval
  4. Factory visit & get the production status
Not Important
  1. File & Sample organizing
  2. System Up-date
  3. Price review
  1. New product collection
  2. Develop product knowledge
  3. Knowing up-date product status of other customer
2) Don’t put task for tomorrow:
Just keep in mind that tomorrow never come . If you are thinking today is for relax & tomorrow will be your busy day that would be unrealistic . Actually it does not happen because tomorrow you will see new task has added to do & in this way task will be more . One day without doing your important task means you are going to burden yourself for tomorrow .So whatever you think that should have be done today from your task priority list , do it immediately . Never wait for tomorrow.

3) Check double/Triple which is mathematical:
Usually a merchandiser works in a rush movement so sometimes it is not possible to do all the mathematical task in cool mind . Suppose you are going to book fabric or yarn . Here you have to calculate some figure to get the fabric amount that can be used for bulk . but for the all rush movement you made little mistake & proceeded for procurement . Your delivery time may be very short so without any revision of your booking hand over it to supplier & finally when the fabric in-housed it was identified what mistake you have done earlier during fabric booking. May be you mistake in color name or fabrication is wrong . Instead of 90/10 cotton/elastane you received fabric in 100% cotton . This is due to you worked in an old work order sheet where fabric was booked in 100% cotton & in the new sheet fabrication was not changed . The mistake is very little but outcome is devastating . To save time you did not give a cross check on the sheet & now all of your production schedule has gone to drain . This is really measurable when you will see your fabric is in-housed but cannot meet delivery date . Now again book the fabric newly & shipped the goods by air due to you missed delivery date . Actually this would not happen if you are careful & taking extra time give revision twice or triple . If you can take help from your colleague to see the booking as second party . This will help you to avoid extra hassle & to utilize your time properly . Here you can keep some key for cross check . cross check means the figure that should be off course changed in new booking . For fabric booking check the below
  • Fabric composition .
  • Fabric construction .
  • Fabric color .
  • Fabric width .
  • Finally Fabric Qty .
4) Don’t miss any mail:
A single mail can change total output . If you are not properly look into your mail & work through of it you may miss some important information . So read your every single mail & share the mail with all the relevant party . Don’t keep it in your box only . If you have some mail that you should give answer please keep it in red mark so that it will not go out of your track .

5) Don’t do a task twice:
This is actually relevant to point no 3 . Take extra time to do anything but don’t think you will do it twice or 2nd time you will get the opportunity to do it again . Suppose you are in great rush hour to submit sample, giving mail repeatedly to factory to submit the sample in certain date along with lots of phone call . Finally received it but factory made mistake to follow earlier comments what buyer has given . That means the sample is rejected & is not ok to send buyer . Again the sample is made following the comments but it was late one week . So all your production plan got delayed because of not to submit the sample due date . Actually from beginning you could avoid all the delay & wrong thing . If you could take just extra 15 minutes to check the change that buyer want in the earlier comment or before stitching you could visit factory & check everything that sample is going in right way it would help you to save time & energy . Take extra minute to do anything .

5) Do extra work just one day:
In your ‘to do list’ you got some task that has to be done by this week but you are engaged so much in some important meeting so could not able to work on weekly schedule . Now what can you do ? Use only one day to work extra hour in the week . Never think to do it every day . You can work extra hour at the last working day of a week so that the next day you can do relax & enjoy family . So a day for a week can be your extra hour to finish pending task . This will help you to minimize your work load .

6) Make a good relation with everyone to get job done early:
This is said that everyone is king in his own work place . May be the person is a lab in charge . As job routine he is bound to do what are all your requirement because owner assigned him to do job what merchandiser demand in related to lab issue . But this is also true he keeps schedule in his every day to do list as per queue . So you cannot ask for lab dip just in a day where as he has hundreds of lab making in the schedule . Here if you have good relation with the person it will be easy to get lab dip though you are not in the queue . So make a good relation to all the department even a person who is in a worker level . Never underestimate any one . Respect all to get respect from every one .

7) Utilize down time:
Usually success comes from the time which is not usually counted by the commners . Because to do extra work there are no alternative way except utilizing down time . Down time means – the time what you are just doing nothing or doing one more job simultaneously . Suppose you are just stucked in the traffic jam which is very common in our city life . It is often seen people are just seating in the jam & trying to blame the system . But if you want to use your down time ,this can be an opportunity for you . Take journal or book & start reading . That means all of your time can be used properly . On the other hand you can use down time in different way . May be you are having lunch .This may take 15 minutes to finish . During your lunch time you can listen radio news in your mobile . This will help you to get up-date information about what is happening around you . your busy life will not stop you to be up-dated in a new day .

8) Keep proper tracking whatever your are doing:
We are human being . So sometime this is not possible to keep everything in our memory . In the merchandising no one can you say everything is in tracking unless he follows some basic rules . The basic rules of keeping track is ‘put down notes’ in your excel sheet or note book . Make a excel sheet & put all your information whatever you receive every day . Put the date on the stuff what you receive from buyer & what you send to buyer . keep same information on the submitted items to avoid any kinds of confusion between you & buyer . Keep your sample / swatch in a place where anything may not be lost . Make sure to keep separately all your important items to be understood by everyone or to get it in your absence . You can follow below rules to keep tracking .
  • Put date on everything .
  • Up-date & review your excel sheet every day .
  • Keep hard copy of all your important mail . Because some time you may not be in net service when the information is required .
  • Put your excel saved in your draft mail to find the data available incase computer is got effected by the harmful virus .
  • Don’t forget to send a mail to any consignee whenever you are sending sample /swatch .
9) Keep all approval in hand :
Don’t miss any of your approval that received from buyer . Suppose fabric quality , sample or trims whatever comments on submission please keep in proper way so that it will not loss . If you have several submission on particular item that sent to buyer make sure to keep date & comment for each submission . This will help you not to be haphazard among the all submission .

10) Don’t miss to put anything on mailing correspondence :
Some time you may feel unnecessary to put things in the mail whatever discussion you did in phone or verbal communication with someone . In reality this is very important & never delay to put the content you discussed in a written document /mail to prove the conversation . Suppose a trim supplier confirmed you in a particular date to deliver the item over the phone . As you feel the commitment is definitely will be met so did not put the conversation in mail . But in the due date you get the supplier denied to deliver the item & ignored his commitment . So if you could keep the commitment in a written document it would be easier to hold him . Believe me this is most effective to make easy your job ,keeping things in mail .

11) Keep clean your desk :
A merchandiser has to do hundreds of job in a day so this is quite natural if his desk gets occupied by lots of stuff like paper , swatch , trims etc. Every day new items come to you & your surrounding is seeming a little store of fabric , sample & with others thing . You feel over loaded as your desk is overloaded by working stuff . How can you clean your desk to make free from all kinds dizzy materials ? This is really challenging for you rather than your daily job . Some time we feel keeping things on desk is not a problem & this is actually to get the things in hand . Believe me if your boss or others want to see anything in your obscene from the desk they might be puzzled & confused what to take & what to not take . So use only 30 minutes to keep clean your desk & put all the stuff in particular folder so that anyone can find any important item . This will make your job easy . Remember ‘The true competition lies is not what we do, but how we do it’.

12) Take suggestion if you are in trouble :
The universal truth is – two head is better than one head . That means if you are trying to do something counsel with other so that you can work more efficiently with less error . Never think you are the perfect one & no need to take suggestion from others . In other way this is called – cheer leader .Cheer leader is your boss , co-worker , friend so If you want to be in track & to do the correctly must discuss with fellow people. Definitely this will ease your job .

13) Filing & updating :
A merchandiser means lots of file & documents, so maintaining file for the each order & keeping the necessary stuff is very important . Actually this is little similar to the point ‘Keep clean your desk’. However this is specifically to put the thing in file properly . How your file will look ? where to keep it ? what name can be given to each file ? there are lots of issue that should have to take in consideration if are really interested to be a smarter merchandiser . To do your task in smart way you need to think about your file . Suppose where to keep it ? always try to keep your important file close to your hand so that you might not be haphazardly looking for your file when you need . Here some suggestion how to keep file –
  • Put a name for your file in bold letter .
  • Put all the information on top of the file ,example – style name , PO no , Qty , & a garment sketch .
  • Your file should be clean & need to keep all the paper in a chronological way .
  • For easy understanding you can use divider to keep separate the subject matter .
  • Use folder to keep different submission ,off course don’t forget to write date .
  • Use metal cliff so that the file can be use for long time .
  • If you receive revised PO please make sure to keep it in file & keep a cross mark on old PO .
  • Never remove any paper from your file ,if Pos are revised keep date on old file & write on top of it why this is changed . 

Features and Characteristics of Armed Forces Textiles

History and Features of Armed Forces Textiles

Md.Tanvirul Haque Bhuiyan
Dept. of Apparel Manufacturing,
National Institute of Textile Engineering & Research (NITER), Savar, Dhaka.
Email :
Facebook : Tanvirul Haque Mukut

Textiles for military uniforms face a complex set of challenges. They must provide protection, durability and comfort in a wide range of hostile environments. In this assignment we will discuss the history of military textile, the range of recent research on how military clothing can best meet soldier’s needs. The general requirements of military textiles are damage resistance, comfort, sweat management, cold-weather conditions and the integration of high-tech materials into uniforms. We will also discuss the protective role of military textiles, high-performance ballistic fibres, textiles for chemical and biological protection, camouflage materials and military fabrics for flame protection.

History of Military Textile:

Ancient time:
Humans have used forms of protective armor in combat for at least five millennia. At first animal skins and furs were the only protection both in combat and in cold weather. Tall headwear made from animal furs(bearskin caps), feather(ostrich) or carrying tall plumes to increase apparent height of troops . The materials used were all of natural origin like as, wool,cotton, silk, flax, horsehair, furs from bears, seals, tigers, leopards etc. feather from birds such as chickens, pecock and ostrich.

Ancient civilizations used leather as a form of protection beginning in roughly 3000 BC. The use of leather has continued as a means of various types of body protection. Some 700 years later, ancient cultures such as those in Egypt learned to alter leather by boiling and tanning it. Leather was very effective in warding off blows from bludgeoning weapons and can be found serving this role in some cultures and subcultures up to the present day. The first fabricated weapons of note in warfare were swords and spears, so more advanced armor was at first designed specifically to address these threats. The Egyptians were using armor to protect from slashing and cutting weapons as early as 1500 BC. The first forms of armor were probably cloth garments with bronze scales or plates sewn mounted on them. The Syrians apparently developed lamellar armor between 900 and 600 BCby mounting small rectangular plates upon a garment in parallel rows. Later, the Greeks made armor from bronze plates that not only fitted over the individual parts of the body, but were shaped to fi t over the part of the body where it would be carried. Chain mail seems to have been invented by the Celts in Europe, but it was quickly adopted by the Romans and many subsequent civilizations.

14th to 16thcentury:
As early as the 14th century, armor was given a proof rating which guaranteed its protective qualities against weapons of the time.With the advancement of firearms, armor had to withstand and absorb impact from large caliber projectiles. The weight of armor increased up to about 50 kg, which was a burden on the wearer. The leather garment originally created to be worn under armor was used alone, because it gave the wearer mobility. A debate began then about what was more important, optimum protection or comfort and mobility.

17th to 19th century:
During all of the armor developments of the ancient and medieval cultures,the greatest threats to soldiers and their armor were the ballistic weapons. Of these, the bow and the crossbow first posed the most dangerous challenges to survival on the battlefield.Eventually, armor became thick and heavy enough by using layers of leather and metal to with standmost hits by even longbows or crossbows, so a further development in lethality was needed. This step came in the form of the gun.

20th century:
In this century scientific experiments were done to make perfect military textile. Scientist were concerned about the material, color, fabric construction, comfort, effectiveness and quality of military textiles.

The British forces adopted khaki colored cotton made uniforms in 1902. This cotton uniform gave insufficient protection from different climate. So, wool worsted twill fabric uniforms were used afterwards. All non-clothing materials, like- tents, covers, nets, load carriage items, sleeping systems made from natural fibres (wool, cotton, flax, jute, hemp, sisal).

In 1930, the new fibre ‘Nylon’ was used for light strong parachute canopies and the development of Ventile cotton fabric (water proof but water vapour permeable fabric) for aircrew survival clothing.The British Royal Air Force and the US Army Air Corps created and issued protective vests to flight personnel beginning early in the Second World War. These early ballistic resistant armors were known as ‘flak’ jackets because German Anti-Aircraft Artillery was known as FLAK (Fliegerabwehrkanonen). Thus, flak jackets are ballistic-resistant garments intended solely for the purpose of defending a body from shrapnel, or explosion fragments, and not from bullets. These first flak vests contained steel plates carried in multiple plies of nylon fabric that protected against relatively low velocity shrapnel.

‘Denison smock’ is a fabric which was used for military purpose. It was lightweight windproof cotton gabardine fabric and bearing camouflage in 1941 (UK).

In 1944, a sand colour vehicle cover was introduced for desert warfare. USA introduced the layered combat clothing concept in 1943. In 1970, the olive green 100% cotton satin drill fabric was invented. The 1st four color printed combat material was introduced in 1972 in UK.

Features of Armed Forces Textiles:
  • Light weight fire retardant fabric is necessary for the clothing of the Naval and Armed forces personnel. Especially for the person engaged in engineering works and working in the heated condition. 
  • Moreover military clothing should be capable to protect them from cold and should have buoyant properly. 
  • Some clothing of such property is manufactured on commercial basis. Candadian forces are using such type of clothing. These types of clothing are made of Nomex fiber. 
  • Head hoods and hand gloves made of Kevlar fiber are used by the Newzeland naval forces. Beside those clothing, different type of flame retardant clothing are manufactured and used by the naval and armed forces. 
  • NASA (National Aeronautic Space Authority) has prescribed clothing of special property to protect the soldiers from the critical environment during warfare. 
  • As such clothing, cotton fabric has been considered as the best because of comfortability, electrical resistiivity and skin sensitivity. Chemically treated cotton fabrics are used for the manufacture of such clothing. Two ply fabrics are used for the clothing. The chemically treated cotton fabric plies are 244 grams per square yard mercerized knitted single jersey fabrics. 
  • These fabrics are flame retardant finished with THPOH/NH3 and DAP/Urea in two steps. As a result, these type clothing shows better flame retardancy and burning retardancy properly, this is approved by NASA. 
  • Blanket made for the soldiers is made of two ply fabric made from glass fibre and in between two ply fabric. 
  • Fibrous silica is used. Beside those, as heat resistant clothing needle felt nomexfibre, ceramic and graphite fibre woven fabric. Silicon rubber coated fabrics also used on this.
Future requirements of soldiers:
Future requirements of soldiers
Future requirements of soldiers
Characteristics of military textile:
  • The requirement should be such that there should not be “thread breaks” up to 50,000 abrasion cycles when tested as per IS: 12673:1989. 
  • Air permeability of the fabric shall be at least 5cc/sec/cm2 when tested according to IS 11056:1984. 
  • Water vapor permeability (watermethod)Shall be 1400g/m2/day (Minimum) when tested according to ASTME-96. 
  • The use of either FR(fire resistent) fibers or FR coating should also be included in the present specification to meet surface ignition test when tested as per ISO 15025 (no hole formation, no melting and no dripping).
  • Therefore It is recommended that the WR(wrinkle recovery) rating (after 24 hours) of the combat shall be minimum 4 when tested according to AATCC 128-2004.
Protective materials:
All ballistic resistant materials have certain common characteristics. The use of polymer materials has made the protection to weight ratio very favorable for their use over metals or ceramics. Lower weight also permits greater mobility and better capability for police or military personnel to perform their assignments with reduced threats from attackers. In addition to the desired characteristic of low weight, there are also important demands for flexibility and thermal transport. Stiff, inflexible ballistic garments inhibit performance even at low weight. Garments or materials that trap body heat and moisture are unpleasant for intended wearers and are cited as one of the main reasons such garments are not worn in the line of duty.

The materials that are used now a days for making military dresses, are-
  1. Polyester
  2. Cotton
  3. High Tenacity Polyester
  4. Kevlar®
  5. Coolmax®
  6. Meta Aramid®
  7. Lycra
  8. Nomex®
Here Kevlar®, Coolmax®, Meta Aramid®,Nomex®these three are registered man madefibre.

Kevleris the registered trademark for a para-aramid synthetic fiber. Developed by Stephanie Kwolek at DuPont in 1965, this high-strength material was first commercially used in the early 1970s as a replacement for steel in racing tires. Typically it is spun into ropes or fabric sheets that can be used as such or as an ingredient in composite material components.
The reaction of 1,4-phenylene-diamine (para-phenylenediamine) with terephthaloyl chloride yielding kevlar.
Coolmax, a trademark of Invista, is a brand name for a series of moisture-wicking technical fabrics developed in 1986 by DuPont Textiles and Interiors (now Invista). The fabrics employ specially-engineered polyester fibres to improve "breathability" compared to natural fibres like cotton. 'Wick away' or 'wickaway' is a general term used for fabrics that are engineered to draw moisture away from the skin through capillary action and increased evaporation over a wider surface area.
Nomex is a registered trademark for flame-resistantmeta-aramid material developed in the early 1960s by DuPont and first marketed in 1967.
Construction of fabrics are –
  • 3D XD - Spacer fabrics
  • 4D XD – Spacer fabrics
  • Meshes
  • Nets
  • Plain fabrics
Treatments for these fabrics are –
  • Camouflage printing
  • IRR Finish
  • Flame Retardant Treatment
  • Antibacterial finish
  • High Visibility Dyeing
  • Silver treatment
  • Dyeing to customer's own shades
  • NATO color range
Protective gloves and shoes:
Protective gloves and shoes
Global market scenario:
Armed forces textile is a part of technical textile. Protection and military application of smart textiles is expected to remain the largest market segment over the next six years.
  • In advanced countries more than 40% of total textile manufacturing activity involves technical textiles.
  • China has devoted around 20% of its textile production in this field.
  • Asia is emerging as power house of both production and end-use consumption of technical textiles.
  • Asia Pacific is expected to be the fastest growing regional market, with an estimated CAGR of 25.2% from 2013 to 2020.
Reference :
  1. Advances in military textiles and personal equipment Edited by E. Sparks
  4. Military textiles by Eugene Wilusz

An Overview of Winding Machine

An Overview of Winding Machine

Bhavdip Paldiya
Dept. of Textile Technology
Sarvajanik College of Engineering & Technology, Surat, India
Cell: +91 9662020909

Winding is one of the most important operation, which is mainly occurred in spinning section. Besides, it is also important in fabric manufacturing. In fabric manufacturing, directly winding is not so much important, but rewinding is so important. The creation of large yarn packages that can be easily unwound, is called winding. This makes using the yarn on subsequent machines both easier and more economical.
Winding Section
After warping, some packages contain just a few grams of yarn which is unsuitable for the efficiency of further processing, such as warping, twisting, and quelling. This necessitates the preparation of a dense and uniform yarn package of sufficiently large size from unsuitable packages which can unwind in the subsequent operations without interruptions, is called rewinding.The yarn unwound from the package passes through yarn tensioned and control systems, and with the help of a grooved cylinder, is wound evenly around the package; the yarn enters the recess in the cylinder, thus the rotary movement of the cylinder corresponds to the translation of the yarn.Winding machines currently have independent heads with individually adjustable motors. A modern winding machine can process yarns ranging from a count of Ne 2 to finer ones, at a winding speed of 400 to 2000 m/min.

Winding is more than just transferring yarn from one package to another. Further functions of winding are to check the yarn and to eliminate any faults found.

A basic diagram of winding m/c:
A basic diagram of winding m/c
A basic diagram of winding m/c
Auxiliary functions of a winding machine
  1. Creeling: Creeling is the removing of empty package and placement of the full package, in the feed region of the machine, ready to be unwound as part of the transfer process.
  2. Piecing: Piecing is the process of finding the ends of the packages and connecting them
  3. Doffing: Doffing is the process of removing the full package and placement of the empty package, in the delivery region of the machine, ready to receive yarn as part of the transfer process.
Methods of Driving in a Winding machines
  1. Surface contact driving
  2. Direct package driving at constant speed
  3. Direct package driving at variable speed
Surface contact driving
In this process the groove drum is rotated by the motor. The drum is in contact with the package so as the drum rotates the package also rotates. The grooves in the drum provide the traversing motion for the yarn. Here the winding rate stays constant as package diameter increases.
Surface contact driving
Surface contact driving
Direct package driving at constant speed
In this system the yarn package is placed in a spindle and the spindle is rotated with the motor. Therefore the package gets motion directly from motor. The package gets angular motion and the yarn take up rate is directly proportional to package diameter.
Direct package driving at constant speed
Direct package driving at constant speed
Direct package driving at variable speed
In this system the yarn package is placed in a spindle and the spindle is rotated with the motor. Therefore the package gets motion directly from motor. Here the rotational speed of package is varied inversely to package diameter to keep winding speed constant.
Direct package driving at variable speed
Direct package driving at variable speed
Traverse method
Reciprocating yarn guide
Reciprocating yarn guide
Reciprocating yarn guide passage
Reciprocating yarn guide passage
Grooved Drum
Grooved Drum
Precision Winding
By precision winding successive coils of yarn are laid close together in a parallel or near parallel manner. By this process it is possible to produce very dense package with maximum amount of yarn stored in a given volume.

  • Package are wound with a reciprocating traverse
  • Patterning and rubbing causes damage of packages
  • Package contains more yarn
  • Package is less stable
  • The package is hard and compact
  • The package is dense
  • Rate of unwinding of package is low and the process of unwinding is hard
  • The unwound coil is arranged in a parallel or near parallel manner
Non Precision Winding
By this type of winding the package is formed by a single thread which is laid on the package at appreciable helix angle so that the layers cross one another and give stability to the package. The packages formed by this type of winding are less dense but is more stable.

  • Only one coil is used to make this packages
  • Cross winding technique is used
  • The package density is low
  • Minimum number of yarn is wound
  • The package formed is soft and less compact
  • The stability is high
  • Flanges are not required
  • The rate of unwinding is high and the process is easy
  • The packages formed have low density
Winding Efficiency:
Winding Efficiency: [Actual production / Calculated production] * 100%
Efficiency Loss: [(Calculated production - Actual production) / Calculated production] * 100%

Winding efficiency depends on the following factors:
  1. Spindle or drum speed: The higher the speed the more is the winding efficiency
  2. Yarn Count: Yarn count is proportional to winding efficiency
  3. Yarn quality: If yarn quality increases then winding efficiency increases
  4. Worker efficiency: The more efficient the work is the more efficient the winding will be.
  5. Humidity: Humidity is reciprocal or inversely proportional to winding efficiency.
  6. Work load per worker: If the work load on each worker is less then efficiency of winding will be more.
  7. Maintenance and over hauling: If the maintenance and over hauling of the machine is not correct then efficiency of winding will decrease.
  8. Power failure: If power failure rate increases the winding efficiency will decrease.
  9. Creeling time: The more the creeling time the less is the efficiency.
  10. Doffing time: The more the doffing time the less is the efficiency.
  11. Capacity utilization: When capacity utilization decreases then efficiency increases. 



Bhavdip Paldiya
Dept. of Textile Technology
Sarvajanik College of Engineering & Technology, Surat, India
Cell: +91 9662020909

USTER created a numeric value to describe the level of yarn unevenness, the so-called U%, deriving from the German word ‘Unregelmässigkeit’, which means irregularity. This was followed by the first USTER standards in 1957, which provided classification of yarn quality into different levels, today referred to as the USTER® STATISTICS percentile levels.

With the introduction in 1960 of the first automatic yarn clearer, the USTER® SPECTOMATIC, spinners had a means of controlling the quality of yarns in the production process.

But spinners were still challenged to find a way of using data gathered in the laboratory to optimize the settings of the in-process quality control capabilities of the yarn clearer. The solution came with the launch of the USTER® CLASSIMAT in 1968, which classified yarn defects into classes – the CLASSIMAT® values – with associated USTER® STATISTICS produced the following year. The classification of defects into classes provided the means for spinners to optimize their yarn clearing and the users of yarn to specify the required quality levels.

The introduction of the USTER® CLASSIMAT 1 in 1968 revolutionized the checking and determining of yarn quality in production and commerce .The later models CLASSIMAT 2 and CLASSIMAT 3 optimized and extended the application possibilities.The USTER® CLASSIMAT QUANTUM offers even more advanced classification possibilities.
The classification of yarn defects according to their size and length into 23 standard classes is used extensively to certify yarn quality, to help control spinning processes and to optimize yarn clearing at the winding stage. In the meantime, quality demands have increased enormously. A class of defects regarded as tolerable in the past is no longer acceptable today, because basic yarn quality has improved significantly over the years.

Fault classification based on the well-proven analysis of thick and thin places remains fundamental, but must now also cover critical parameters such as foreign-matter, count variation, periodic faults, unevenness and hairiness. Consistent quality has risen in importance as much as absolute quality and the monitoring of quality exceptions is crucial to control them.

USTER® CLASSIMAT 5 offers the most technically-advanced sensors and superior hardware to detect and eventually classify all types of defects. The unique USTER® sensor range has all the options covered:
  • The new capacitive sensor identifies both short and fine neps, as well as troublesome thick and thin places that previously could not be detected until showing up in the final fabric.
  • The latest foreign fiber sensor, using multiple light sources to locate and classify contamination in yarns, even separating colored fibers and vegetable matter in cottons and blends, to distinguish potentially non-disturbing materials from real defects.
  • A novel sensor combination, enabling polypropylene content to be detected and classified for the first time.
  • Unique range of advanced sensors covering every option for yarn defect classification
  • New capacitive sensor with enhanced detection capabilities
  • Foreign-matter technology, able to distinguish all colors and non-disturbing materials
  • Breakthrough in polypropylene detection, based on novel sensor combination
  • New mounting module, special guides and tension control, ensuring ultimate accuracy.
The appearance of seldom-occurring faults in a grey fabric depends on various items:
  • The cross-section of the fault compared to the mean value.
  • The length of the fault.
  • The count of the yarn.
  • The yarn density in the fabric.
  • The type of fabric (weaving or knitting).
The new features of the USTER® QUANTUM 3 :
Yarn Body -The "yarn body" represents the nominal yarn with its tolerable, frequent yarn faults. Yarn body is a new yarn characteristic, and we know from the experience so far that the yarn body changes according to the raw material and the spinning process. By analyzing the shape of the yarn bodies out of different raw material varieties and process changes, we can discover pat-terns, and build up references. Based on the references, the operator can identify changes. The yarn body becomes always wider in the direction of the short yarn events, e.g. short faults occur more frequent. On the con-trary, the yarn body becomes smaller in the direction of the long yarn events The yarn body is a great tool to help finding the optimum clearing limits for thick places (NSL), thin places (T), yarn count deviations (C) and (CC).

The yarn body is composed of two parts:
  • Dark green area representing the real yarn body.
  • Light green area representing yarn body variations.
Since both dark and light green areas together constitute the yarn body, it is recommended that the clearing limit should not cut into the yarn body. If the clearing limit is laid within these green areas, the cuts will increase significantly and the productivity will be lower.

Previous CLASSIMAT® generations used 23 different classes, giving good coverage of all detected faults. However, there has been enormous progress in yarn quality – yarns have become more even, with the result that smaller defects are now viewed as disturbing. These small faults can now be detected and classified by the USTER® CLASSIMAT 5, extending the existing classification table to include a total of 45 classes. The USTER® CLASSIMAT QUANTUM can be used not only as a tool in order to examine the yarns to be purchased for remaining disturbing thick places, thin places and foreign fibres but also as a sophisticated classifying system which can help the user to determine and set his own yarn quality standards.
Today, the selection of the right yarn for the right product is crucial for economic reasons. A continuous incoming inspection guarantees a constant satisfactory quality of the end product. In this respect, yarn clearing and classifying systems are playing a very important role. At the beginning of electronic yarn clearing, the setting of the clearing curve has been quite difficult and has required specialists.

In 1968, Uster Technologies launched an electronic system by the name of USTER® CLASSIMAT, which was a revolution in yarn clearing at that time. The purpose of the system was the analysis of seldom-occurring or disturbing thick places and the setting of an optimum clearing curve on the winding machine to eliminate the really disturbing yarn faults and to simultaneously keep the efficiency of the winding machine as high as possible.

For this purpose the yarn was classified into four length and in four thick place classes.

This analysing system was not only used by spinners. The yarn buyers (traders, weavers, knitters, garment makers, etc) also detected this system as a tool to separate yarns into first grade, second grade, etc, or to establish minimum conditions for the acceptance of yarns. As already mentioned, the first classifying system was introduced in the market in 1968. Therefore, the year 2008 marks the 40th anniversary of this analysing tool. Figure 1 also shows that the system has been permanently improved in the past 40 years. Today with the USTER® CLASSIMAT QUANTUM generation, the cleared and uncleared yarn can be checked. The classification of thick and thin places, neps and foreign fibres in the yarn can be fulfilled.

This system also helps the user in determining the optimal limits for yarn clearing, in analysing new material, and supports with experience values, which can be used for benchmarking and evaluation.

Zellweger Uster AG, a textile instrument manufacturer based in Switzerland, has produced generations of evenness testing instrument for rapid measurement of the evenness of various fibre assemblies. The latest is the Uster Evenness Tester 4, although its predecessor (Uster Evenness Tester 3) is still widely used.

The Uster Evenness Tester :
It measures mass variations along the length of a fibre assembly. It is based on the capacitance principle. The two capacitors detect the mass variations or weight per unit length variations of the fibre assembly running between them. These variations are transformed into a proportional electrical signal. The signal processing unit will process this signal, as well as other useful information concerning the mass variations.

The key quality attributes listed for these yarns are:
  • Yarn count variation (between bobbins or packages)
  • Mass variation (U% and CV%)
  • Imperfections (thick and thin places, neps)
  • Uster Hairiness Index
  • Tensile properties (strength and elongation) .
It is well-known that the yarn quality is very important for the quality of the end product. Weak places, for example, mainly affect the productivity (machine stops caused by end breaks) whereas coarse yarn faults in woven or knitted fabrics result in costly rejects. Today, the selection of the right yarn for the right product is crucial for economic reasons. A continuous incoming inspection guarantees a constant satisfactory quality of the end product. In this respect classifying systems are playing a very important role. For example many of the foreign fibre problems are only detected after finishing, and the spinner is finally made responsible for the damage. For this reason, the sooner they are detected, the lower the costs and the better the quality. The costs and claims due to foreign fibres can be prevented by setting up a quality management system to eliminate or minimise the number of foreign fibres in yarns.

Within the scope of a modern quality assurance program it is now possible that test reports, which serve as a quality guarantee for the observance of supplier agreements or certificates, are requested with every yarn delivery. As a result of 40 years of continuous experience in yarn clearing and classification, the USTER® CLASSIMAT QUANTUM can be used not only as a tool in order to examine the yarns to be purchased for remaining disturbing thick places, thin places and foreign fibres, but also as a sophisticated classifying system which can help the user to determine and set his own yarn quality standards.