Free Download Latest Books on Technical Textile, Fiber, Spinning, Fabric, Weaving, Knitting, Garments, Fashion, Design, Dyeing, Printing and Finishing

Textile is the ancient branch of engineering. Now textile engineering study is becoming more demand-able then before. Because textiles have not only used for wearing but also hugely used in different sectors like as technical textile. Many research works are being done on textile. But doing research anything it needs huge information. Books have not alternative of information. But price of every book is out of range such like us third world country’s people. For fulfillment the demand of information I will give a list of textile books. All books I have collected from my friends and fans who are studying in different famous universities around the world. I think these books will be helpful for students, researchers, businessmen, entrepreneurs as well as all people who are interested to know about textile. 


Warning: If you want to get any book from the following list then you must have to publish Article or Assignment or Project work in this blog for promoting purpose. Without these please don't send email.


Books on Technical Textile/Updated Textile

Woodhead Publishing Series Books:
  1. Textiles for Protection
  2. Advanced Textiles for Wound Care
  3. Advances in Fire Retardant Materials
  4. Advances in military textiles and personal equipment
  5. Advances in Textile Biotechnology
  6. Applications of Nonwovens in Technical Textiles
  7. Biodegradable and Sustainable Fibres
  8. Biologically Inspired Textiles
  9. Biomechanical Engineering of Textiles & Clothing
  10. Clothing Biosensory Engineering
  11. Coated & Laminated Textiles
  12. Ecotextiles The Way Forward for Sustainable Development in Textiles
  13. Engineering Textiles - Intergrating The Design and Manufacture of Textile Products
  14. Fibrous and Composite Materials for Civil Engineering Applications
  15. Friction in Textile Materials
  16. Functional Textiles for Improved Performance
  17. Hand book of medical textile
  18. Handbook of Geosynthetics
  19. Handbook of nonwovens
  20. Handbook of Sustainable Textile Production
  21. Handbook of Technical Textile
  22. Intelligent Textiles & Clothing
  23. Intelligent Textiles and Clothing for Ballistic and NBC Protection
  24. Intelligent Textiles for Personal Protection & Safety
  25. Interior Textiles - Design and Developments
  26. Military Textiles
  27. Modelling and Predicting Textile Behaviour
  28. Nanofibers and Nanotechnology in Textiles
  29. Performance of Home Textiles
  30. Plasma technologies for textiles
  31. Recycling in Textiles
  32. Recycling textile and plastic waste
  33. Shape Memory Polymer & Textiles
  34. Smart Clothes and Wearable Technology
  35. Smart Fibres, Fabrics & Clothing
  36. Smart Textile Coatings and Laminates
  37. Smart Textiles for Medicine & Healthcare - Materials, Systems & Applications
  38. Soft Computing in Textile Engineering
  39. Surface modification of textiles
  40. Sustainable Textiles - Life Cycle and Environmental Impact
  41. Textile Advances in The Automotive Industry
  42. Textile Processing with Enzymes
  43. Textiles for Cold Weather Apparel
  44. Textiles for Hygiene and Infection Control
  45. Textiles in Automotive Engineering
  46. Textiles in Sport
  47. Textiles, polymers and composites for buildings
  48. Training and development of technical staff in the textile industry
  49. Wearable Electronics & Photonics
  50. Weaving of 3D fabrics A critical appreciation of the developments
  51. Handbook of Tensile Properties of Textile and Technical Fibres
  52. Textile Reference Book of Nonwovens
Another Publishing Series Books:
  1. Coating Substrates and Textiles
  2. Geotextiles in transportation applications
  3. Biofunctional Textiles and the Skin
  4. Coated Textiles Principles and Applications
  5. Introduction to nanotechnology
  6. Advances in Construction Materials
  7. Coated Textile
  8. Engineering Use of GeoTextile
  9. Nanocomposite Science and Technology
  10. Health aspects of flame retardants in textile
  11. Technical Textile Class Notes
  12. Textile Composites and inflatable structures
  13. Adaptive and functional polymers, textiles and their applications
  14. Multifunctional Barriers for Flexible Structure
  15. Survey of technical textile

Books on Dyeing/Printing/Finishing

Woodhead Publishing Series Books:
  1. Handbook of Textile and Industrial Dyeing, Volume 1
  2. Handbook of Textile and Industrial Dyeing, Volume 2
  3. Basic Principles of Textile Coloration
  4. Fundamentals and Practices in Colouration of Textiles
  5. Total Colour Management in Textiles
  6. Recent Advances in Environmentally Compatible Polymers
  7. Environmental aspects of textile dyeing
  8. Colour Measurement - Principles, Advances and Industrial Applications
  9. Environmental Aspects of Textile Dyeing
  10. Environmental Impact of Textiles
  11. Handbook of Worsted Wool and Blended Suiting Process
  12. Chemical Finishing of Textiles
  13. Digital Printing of Textiles
Another Publishing Series Books:
  1. Chemical Technology in the Pre-Treatment Processes of Textiles,
  2. Functional Dyes
  3. Batchwise dyeing of cellolosic fabrics
  4. Blends dyeing
  5. Cellulosic dyeing
  6. Chemistry & Technology of fabric preparation & finishing
  7. Color in dye house effluent
  8. Colorants & auxiliaries volume (1)
  9. Colorants & auxiliaries volume (2)
  10. Color for textiles
  11. Dyeing and Chemical Technology of Textile Fibers
  12. Dyes & Pigments
  13. Industrial and Hazardous Wastes Treatment
  14. Industrial Dyes
  15. Practical Dyeing Volume 1
  16. Practical Dyeing Volume 3
  17. Singeing fundamentals
  18. Textiles Dyeing and Printing-I
  19. Textile Dyeing and Printing-II
  20. The Chemistry of Dyeing
  21. Water recycling
  22. Wool dyeing
  23. Industrial and Hazardous Wastes Treatment
  24. Colour-Chemistry
  25. Encyclopedia Of Textile Finishing
  26. Reference book of Finishing
  27. Textile Finishing Chemicals
  28. Textile finishing
  29. Textile printing

Books on Fiber

Woodhead Publishing Series Books:
  1. High-performance fibres
  2. New Millennium Fibres
  3. Smart Fibres, Fabrics & Clothing
  4. Identification of Textile Fibers
  5. Physical Properties of Textile Fibres (4th Edition)
  6. Cotton Science and technology
  7. Physical properties of textile fibres
  8. Advanced Fiber Spinning Technology
  9. Advances In Polymer Science 178 - Polymeric & Inorganic Fibers
  10. Advances in Wool technology
  11. Atlas of Fibre Fracture and Damage to Textiles
  12. Bast and other plant fibres
  13. Biodegradable and Sustainable Fibres
  14. Fatigue Failure of Textile Fibres
  15. Handbook of Fibre Rope Technology
  16. Handbook of natural fibres volume1
  17. Handbook of natural fibres volume2
  18. Handbook of Tensile Properties of Textile and Technical Fibres
  19. Handbook of Textile Fibre Structure, Volume 1
  20. Handbook of Textile Fibre Structure, Volume 2
  21. Handbook of Worsted Wool and Blended Suiting Process
  22. Multifunctional Barriers for Flexible Structure
  23. Polyesters & Polyamides
  24. Regenerated Cellulose Fibers
  25. Silk, mohair, cashmere and other luxury fibres
  26. Synthetic Fibres - Nylon, Polyester,
  27. Wool - Science & Technology
Another Publishing Series Books:
  1. Dyeing and Chemical Technology of Textile Fibres
  2. Fiber Dictionary
  3. Handbook of fiber chemistry
  4. Reference book for man made fibers

Books on Spinning

Woodhead Publishing Series Books:
  1. Advances in yarn spinning technology
  2. Handbook of Yarn Production
  3. A Practical Guide to Quality Management in Spinning
  4. Advanced Fiber Spinning Technology
  5. Yarn Texturing Technology
  6. False twist textured yarns - Principles, processes and applications
  7. Fancy yarns
  8. High speed spinning of polyester and its blends with viscose
Another Publishing Series Books:
  1. Cotton Spinning Calculation and Yarn Cost
  2. Fundamentals-of-spun-yarn-technology
  3. Reference book for spinning
  4. Textile calculation
  5. Yarn count & Calculation

Books on Fabric/Design/Weaving/Knitting

Woodhead Publishing Series Books:
  1. Design & Manufacture of Textile Composites
  2. Advances in Carpet Manufacture
  3. Smart Fibres, Fabrics & Clothing
  4. Effect of Mechanical & Physical Properties on Fabric Hand
  5. Fundamentals of designing for textiles and other end uses
  6. Sizing in Clothing
  7. Structure & Mechanics of Woven Fabrics
  8. Woven Textile Structure - Theory and Applications
  9. Knitting Technology
  10. Advances in Knitting Technology
  11. Fundamentals and advances in knitting technology
Another Publishing Series Books:
  1. Nonwoven-Fabrics
  2. Handbook of Weaving
  3. Mastering Weave Structures
  4. Reference books of weaving
  5. Textile Sizing
  6. A Handbook of Weaves
  7. Fabric Structure Design
  8. Handbook of textile design
  9. Basics Fashion Design - Sourcing Ideas
  10. Basics Fashion Design - Textiles and Fashion
  11. Textile - Reference Book for Knitting

Books on Garments/Merchandising/Fashion

Woodhead Publishing Series Books:
  1. Advances in Apparel Production
  2. Industrial engineering in apparel production
  3. Computer Technology for Textiles and Apparel
  4. New product development in textiles
  5. Quality Characterization of Apparel
  6. Engineering Apparel Fabrics and Garments
  7. Humidification and Ventilation Management in Textile Industry
  8. Management of Technology Systems in Garment Industry
  9. Science in Clothing Comfort
  10. Sizing in Clothing
  11. Smart Clothes and Wearable Technology
  12. Smart Fibres, Fabrics & Clothing
  13. Soft Computing in Textile Engineering
  14. Statistics for textile and apparel management
  15. The global textile and clothing industry
Another Publishing Series Books:
  1. Understanding textile for a merchandiser
  2. Career in Textile and Fashion Designing
  3. Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion
  4. Beginning garment making
  5. Embroidering Identities- A Century of Palestinian Clothing
  6. Fashionable Technology
  7. Sewing machine classroom
  8. The Apparel Industry
  9. Yarn and cloth making

Books on Textile Testing
  1. Fabric Testing
  2. Identification of Textile Fibers
  3. Physical Testing of Textiles
  4. A Practical Guide to Quality Management in Spinning
  5. Chemical Testing of Textiles
  6. Effective Implementation of Quality Management Systems

Books on Textile Chemistry
  1. Shape Memory Polymer & Textiles
  2. Chemical Technology in the Pre-Treatment Processes of Textiles,
  3. Advances in Polymer Science
  4. Chemical_Technology_of_Textile_Fibres
  5. Chemistry & Technology of fabric preparation & finishing
  6. Chemistry of the Textile Industry
  7. Handbook of fiber chemistry
  8. The_Chemistry_of_Dyeing
  9. Textile & Paper Chemistry & Technology
  10. Colour-Chemistry

Other Books
  1. Textile Engineering
  2. Textiles Technology
  3. Advance in Textile Engineering
  4. Basic Textile Technology
  5. C programme
  6. KOTLER - Marketing Management, Millennium Edition
  7. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
  8. Textiles Industry
  9. The italian textile machinery industry
Without of these books I have also many old books and huge collection of research papers, reports, presentations, assignments, project works. All things only for textile learners.

How to get Books?
For students, lecturers, professors who write good article there is a bonus. Please contact the editor.


Contact Details:
Mazharul Islam Kiron
Cell: +88 01724 752452
E-mail: textilelearners@gmail.com
Dhaka, Bangladesh








Fabric Cutting by Water Jet Cutting Machine

Fabric Cutting by Water Jet Cutting Machine
Mayedul Islam
Merchandiser at Fashion Xpress Buying House.
Badda, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Email: mayedul07@gmail.com



Water Jet Cutting Machine
A water jet cutter, also known as a water jet or waterjet, is an industrial tool capable of cutting fabric lay by using a very high-pressure jet of water, or a mixture of water and an abrasive substance. A very fine water-jet is passed through a nozzle at a very high speed to cut the fabric lay. Water pressure used is 60,000 psi and used to cut fabric, lather, and plastic materials. Thickness of the lay has an influence on cutting quality. Lower the thickness of the lay better will be the cutting quality. Water used for jet needs filtration and de-ionization treatment. Water pressure, nozzle size, and cutting speed are inter-related to cutting quality and speed.
Water Jet Cutting Machine
Water Jet Cutting Machine
Advantages of Water Jet Cutting Machine :
  1. Comparatively higher speed of fabric cutting.
  2. No need of sharpening/ grinding.
  3. Suitable for comparatively harder materials cutting. 
Cutting by water nozzle
Cutting by water nozzle
Disadvantages of Water Jet Cutting Machine :
  1. Not suitable for higher depth of lay cutting;
  2. Wet cut edges at the pattern;
  3. Water spot may develop in the fabric;
  4. Water needs filtration and de-ionization treatment.
  5. Lower plies of multi-layer fabric cutting may not have sharp line.
  6. Needs to control sound of water jet. 
 

Global Climate Change and Its Impact on Agriculture

Global Climate Change and Its Impact on Agriculture
Manisha Shukla,
Assistant Professor,
Department of Economics,
Mahila Mahavidyalaya Post Graduate College, Kidwai Nagar, Kanpur: U. P.
Email: drshukla_kanpur@rediffmail.com



Abstract:
Climate change is one of the greatest environmental threats for the sustainable development of various economies of the world. Global climate change is the result of the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the lower atmosphere. The main cause of Green House Gases (GHG) emission is increased human activities releasing Carbon dioxide (CO2) and deforestation. Greater the climate change more will be the impact on weather condition resulting into flood and storms. Changes in the pattern of rain fall due to El-Nino events are causing danger to the endemic floura and fauna all over the world. Major example of destruction to human life and property can be seen from Tsunami which took place in the island of Sumatra at Indonesia due to impact of climate change. CO2 emission is basically a stock pollutant mainly responsible for climate change because CO2 emitted 100-150 years back still appears to be prevalent in the current stock of GHG’s, so the emission of today will pose a threats to the future generation.

Agriculture is the first culture that mean learnt to practice as a means of living and a way of life. It is primary sector of developed or developing any economy. The agricultural sector is a driving force in the gas emission and land use effects. In addition to being a significant user of land and consumer of fossil fuel, agriculture contributes directly to greenhouse emissions through practices such as rice production and the raising of live stock. There are three main causes of the increase in greenhouse gases observed in past 250 years have been fossil fuels, land use, and agriculture. Agriculture is itself responsible for an estimated one third of global warming and climate change.

Climate and agriculture are interrelated process, both of which take place on a global scale. Global warming is projected to have significant impacts on conditions of affecting agriculture, including temperature, precipitation and glacial run off. These conditions determine the carrying capacity of the biosphere to produce enough food for the human population and domesticated animals. Rising CO2 levels would also have effects, both detrimental and beneficial on crop yields. The overall effect of climate change on agriculture will depend on the balance of these effects. Assessment of effects of global climate change on agriculture might help to properly anticipate and adapt farming to maximize agricultural production.

It is obvious that the impact of climate change has been felt on agriculture sector. Economist reveals that agro development needs to focus on decrease GHG emission through sundry measures namely enhance the forest coverage area, improve conservation and its management, efficient management of livestock waste [through biogases recover], develop scientific instrument and more expenditure on research etc. it is necessary to make huge investments to support climate change to adoption, mitigation, transfer and dissemination.

Introduction:
The global climate system is consequences of and a link between the atmosphere, earth, ocean, ice, and the land system. Any change to this system resulting in climate change is produced by forcing agent - the cause of climate change. Such forcing agents may be either internal or external. External forcing mechanism involves agents acting from outside the climate system.

Climate includes patterns of temperature, precipitation, humidity wind, and seasons. Climate change affects more than just a change in the weathers; it refers to seasonal changes over a long period of time. These climate patterns play a fundamental role in shaping natural ecosystems and the human economies and cultures that depend on them. Because so many systems are tied to climate, a change in climate can affect many related aspects of where and how people, plants and animals live, such as food production, availability and use of water and health risks. For example, a change in the usual timing of rains or temperatures can affect when plants bloom and set fruit, when insects hatch or when streams are their fullest. This can affect historically synchronized pollination of crops, food for migrating birds, swimming of fish, water supplies for drinking and irrigation, forest health and more.

Climate change is one of the greatest environmental threats for the sustainable development of various economics of the world to the future generation.

In recent years climate changes has become synonymous to global warming. But the climate has more variables than just the temperature. Moreover, when one asks what impact climate change has on human life one has to take into consideration the connection between various climate variables (such as temperature, or the amount of perception) and human activities (such as agriculture).

Vulnerability to climate change will mainly depend on economic position and infrastructure capacity of nations, climate changes effects will impose significant additional stress on ecological and socio-economic system, but currently these systems, but currently these systems are burdened by pollution, natural recourses scarcities, and other unsustainable practices. Technologically advanced countries are prepared well for responding to climate changes, particularly by developing and establishing suitable policies institutional and social capable for dealing with the consequences. But the poor and the developing countries are mostly affected by climate change, because they are not having enough and sound technologies or scientific development to deal with this impact. In developing countries like India, climate change is an additional burden because ecological and socio-economic systems are already facing pressures from rapid population, industrialization, and economic development. India’s climate could become warmer under conditions of increases atmospheric carbon dioxide. The average temperature change is predicted to be in the range of 2.33ºC to 4.78ºC with the doubling in CO2 concentrations.

Global climate change due to rising levels of GHGs in the atmosphere is one of the most serious environmental concerns of our time. The inter-government Panel on climate Change (IPCC), established in 1988 by the world Metrological organization and the United Nations Environment Program, has worked extensively on evaluating past trends and the future prospects of climate change. The synthesis report of the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Panel was released in November 2007.

The IPCC reports present a grim picture. It is estimated that the Earth’s surface temperature has risen by 0.6±0.07ºC per decade and the recent years have been the warmest since 1860, the year from which regular instrumental records are available. The Panel has concluded that the fact of global warming is unequivocal and there is enough evidence to indicate that this is due to anthropogenic reasons. Although some of these conclusions have been disputed, the assessment of the IPCC represents a broad and growing consensus in the scientific community world wide. The current level of atmospheric CO2 is estimated as 379 parts per million (ppm) compared with the pre-industrial level of only 280 ppm. The annual growth rate of CO2 concentration has been greater in the last 10 years (1.9 ppm/yr) compared to the last 40 years (1.4 ppm/year). Halocarbons (Chlorofluoro- carbons, etc) in the atmosphere, however, are observed to be decreasing due to be decreasing due to their phase out under the Montreal protocol.

The Green House Effect
The green house effect occurs as a result of green house gases trapping the sun’s heat and keeping it close to the earth. Anyone who has parked a closed car in the sun for a few hours on a summer day has experienced something like the green house effect. The “green house effect” refers to how gases in the earth’s atmosphere naturally keep the earth warm; similar to how a greenhouse keeps plants warm, hence the name. The earth is natural green house effect keeps it about 60 degrees warmer than it would be otherwise. This enables us to live comfortable on earth (NOAA).

Although many “green house gases’’ occur naturally, human activities have increases their level and added new ones. Green house gases of concerned include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and fluorinated gases. Scientist says that increased levels of theses gases are contributing to climate changes. Water vapor is the most abundant greenhouse gas, but human activity isn’t considered a direct cause of changes in its concentration. However a warming atmosphere can trigger change in water vapor levels. (NOAA) some examples of activity that contributes to green house gas levels;
  • Burning fossils fuels – Oil, gasoline, gas, and coal.
  • Industrial Processing and mining.
  • Landfills, septic and sewer system.
  • Agriculture practices, including fertilizer and manure management,
  • Land use practices, including deforestation.
The agricultural sector is a driving force in the gas emissions and land use effects. In addition to being a significant user of land and consumer of fossil fuel, agriculture contributes directly to greenhouse gas emissions through practices such as rice production and the raising of livestock. According to IPCC, the three main causes of the increase in greenhouse gases observed over the past 250 years have been fossil fuels, land use, and agriculture. Agriculture is itself responsible for an estimated one third of global warming and climate change. It is generally agreed that about 25% of the main greenhouse gas, carbon-dioxide, is produced by agricultural sources, mainly deforestation and burning of biomass. Most of the methane in the atmosphere comes from domestic. So main forest fires, wet land rice cultivation and waste products, while conventional tillage and fertilizer use account for 70% of the nitrous oxides. The food and Agriculture Organization has estimated that meat production accounts for nearly a fifth of global greenhouse gas emissions. These are generated during the production of animal feeds. Ruminants particularly cows, emit methane which is 23 times more effective as global warming agent than carbon dioxide.

Effects on Agriculture
One of the most important questions to ask is how climate change affects the agriculture. Various studies have shown that a dire future awaits Africa. As the mountains glaciers melt completely (as they are no longer replenished by snow) many regions will be left with substantial water shortages.

But until recently climate studies were not able to properly model the impacts on agriculture because they only took temperature into consideration, while agriculture is most influenced by precipitations. “Even though the question often posed involves the impact of global warming on agriculture the real question ought to be ‘what is the effect of drought?’ said the Indiana state climatologist Dev Niyogi. To change this situation Niyogi’s team took into consideration four factors and their mutual interactions; temperature, precipitation and land use. Their study concluded that the lack of precipitation will have the most dramatic effect on living conditions in the future due to the impact on the sustainability of agriculture crops. Land use is also relevant because the urban temperature are large than rural ones.
Niyogi described the complex interactions between the four factors; “When temperature raises, more evaporation. More evaporation could lead to more clouds. More clouds might lead to change in radiation. Changes in radiation can impact the amount of conversation- the heating of the environment by the rising air, this lead to formation of rain, which can change the soil moisture again and again”.

Agriculture will be impacted by climate change in several ways. There will be reduced crop yield for example, an increase of temperature from 1 to 14ºC can reduce grain yield of rice by 0-49%, potato by 5-40%, green gram by 13-30%, Soya bean by 11-36%. Climate change can shorten Rabi season and decrease yield. Vulnerability diseases and pest attack increases. High temperatures affect the quality of produce. Increase in temperature can reduce 1000 grain weight and the amylase content and also adversely affected grain elongation and aroma in basmati.

Increase in temperature causes distress to dairy animals affecting milk production. Studies indicated that India loses 1.8 million tones of milk production due to climate stresses.
 
The Impact on Crop Yield
The overall impact of baseline climate change by 2080 is a drastic reduction in agricultural productivity (output per hectare) of 16% without carbon fertilization, and a reduction of 3% should carbon fertilization benefits actually matter of course when results are weighted by output, as in the table:

Table: Agricultural Productivity (% change in agricultural potential)
S. No.
World
Without CF1
With CF2
1.       
Output -Weighted
-16
-03
2.       
Population -Weighted
-18
-06
3.       
Median by Country
-24
-12
4.       
Industrial countries
-06
08
5.       
Developing Countries excludes Europe
-21
-09
6.       
Median
-26
-15
7.       
Africa
-28
-17
8.       
Asia
-19
-07
9.       
Middle  East and North Africa
-21
-09
10.   
Latin America
-24
-13
  • Assumes no benefits to crop yields from increased carbon dioxide in atmosphere.
  • Assumes a positive impact on yields from carbon fertilization.
Agricultural productivity improves as temperatures go from cold to warm, then deteriorates going from warm to hot. According to Sinha and Swaminathan (1991) increase of 2 degree centigrade temperature could decrease the rice yield by about 0.75ton/ha in the high yielding areas and a 0.5 degree centigrade increase in winter temperature would reduce wheat yield by 0.45ton/ha. The Indian council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has estimated that annual wheat output may decline by four to five million tones with every one degree Celsius rise in temperature. Climate change and agriculture are interrelated.

The Impact of Fisheries

In the short term, climate change is expected to affect fresh water fisheries through changes in water temperature, nutrient levels and lower dry season water levels which in turn will have impact on quality, productivity, output and viability of fish and aqua culture enterprises their by effecting fishing community. In the longer term, larger changes in the river flows are anticipated as glaciers melt reducing their capacity to sustain regular and controlled water flow.

The Impact of Land
Rising sea levels owing to climate change would force communities in low line coastal areas and river deltas to move higher ground levels. Similarly increasing frequency of droughts due to climate change would force formers and pastoralists on relay on rain fall to raise their frogs and live stocks to migrate areas in search of land and water. This migration displacement of people result direct conflict and completion between migrants and established communities for excess to land and water. It may be difficult for displaced community to maintain their forming or pastoral tradition.

The Impact of Hydrology and water Resources
Climate change will affect drinking, irrigation and hydro power production. It will have an impact on the predictability and variability of water and also increase in frequencies of drought and floods. Climate change will accelerate damage to fresh water, eco system such as lake, marshes, rivers, hill side, stone slide, and problems in water shade management. it is estimated that by 2050 annual run of off Brahmaputra is to decline by 14% and Indus by 27% ocean chemistry is changing more than 100 times rapidly than it was during last 2100 years. In India a study conducted by Unnikrishanan and Shankar also showed a trend of 1.06 to 1.75 mm rise of sea level per year since industrial revelations, ocean has become 30% more acidic and sea fish under threats. Climate change related melting of glacier could seriously affect half billion people in Himalaya-Hindu-Kush region a quarter billion people in china, depending on glacier melt for water supplies.

Effect on Erosion and Fertility
The warmer atmospheric temperatures observed over the past decade are expected to lead to a more vigorous hydrological cycle, including more extreme rain fall events. Erosion and soil degradation is more likely to occur. Soil fertility would also be affected by global warming. However the ratio of carbon to nitrogen is a constant, a doubling of carbon is likely to imply a higher storage of nitrogen in soils as nitrates, thus providing higher fertilizing elements for plants providing better yields. The average needs for nitrogen could decrease and give the opportunity of changing often costly fertilization strategies.

Effect on Livestock
Livestock also emit some gas which leads to climate change. In the case of methane emissions from the livestock sector, it has been perceived that although cross bred cattle emit relatively more methane per animal, the bulk of the total discharges are accounted for by buffaloes and indigenous cattle due to their far larger population. Out of the total livestock sector’s GHG emissions’ female buffaloes contributed 59.6% followed by indigenous Cows 28.9% and cross bred Cows 11.5% the total emissions from this sector are reckoned at 9.37 Tg, varying in different years from 7.26 Tg. To 10.4 Tg.

Adoption and Mitigation
  • India needs to chart multiple strategies to cope with the impending threats of climate change, which are additional to the existing environmental stresses. This should include a) Research for improved understanding of climate change- related issues; b) The adoption of sustainable development pathways; c) Increasing the adaptive capacity of the poor; and d) Working towards a global arrangement to reduce ambitions of green house gases at the earliest. 
  • The synergy, or trade-off, between addressing climate change and economic development from the long term perspective needs to be understood. India should not focus only on short term financial gain from climate change-related global institutions and mechanisms. The government should treat it as a fundamental problem with potentially serious adverse socio-economic and environmental consequence. It should seek long term solutions to mitigate climate change to reduce its adverse impact on the poor. 
  • Developing climate impact modules that give a better understanding of how climate change affect crop, livestock and fish farming and forestry at a local level in order to be well prepared. 
  • Agricultural Research Institutes and Universities have already been engaged in researching drought resistant and saline resistant crop varieties for arid regions and rainfall tolerant and short duration varieties for flood proven regions. Government and private sector will have to invest substantially in agricultural research on one hand and motivate/ train farmer to take better advantage of the dry rabi season in the flood proven regions help them supplement their income through non- farm activities on the other. 
  • To develop land use plans, food security programs, fisheries and forestry politics that can help farming community suitably adapt to climate change. 
  • Improve management of livestock population especially ruminants and its diet. Increase soil organic carbon through minimal tillage residue management. 
  • Improve energy use efficiency in agriculture through better designs of machinery and by resource conversation practice. 
  • Huge funds are required for adoption. A new model of development is required to give urgency to copping with climate change. Funds are required to go in for researching crop varieties that are resident to drought heat and floods that sequester more carbon and can make better bio-fuels. Beside other sectors too need funs adapt as well. 
  • Agro-forestry that is cultivation of trees together with crop can help formers cope with several of the adverse consequences of climatic change. Planting of trees between the crops and in the boundaries around crops can help prevent soil erosion restore soil fertility and provide shade for other crops. The practice of improved fallow also holds great promise. Optimal use of retained rain water through agro-forestry practice could be one of the effective ways of improving adapting capacity of the systems to the climate changes.
Conclusions
Climate changes and agriculture are inseparably linked global scale, both affecting and influencing the other. Agriculture development needs to focus on decrease CHG emission through sundry measures namely, enhance the forest coverage area, improve conservation and its management, efficient management of livestock waste [through biogas recover], develop scientific instrument and more expenditure on research etc. the government should emphasis on climate change adoption issues in development strategies and programmes. It is necessary to make sufficient investments to support climate change to adoption and mitigation, technology development, transfer and dissemination among formers. Any delay in action to address the climate change will make future action more expensive and even more difficult to agree upon.

References
  1. V. S. Ramakrishna et. al., Impacts of Climate Change Scenarios on Indian Agriculture
  2. Inter-Governmental Panel on climate change, 2001, Climate Change2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Third assessment report, Bonn, P.556
  3. UNDP 2009 Human development report; 2003, United Nations Development Program (UNDP), Oxford University, New York.
  4. Anil Kumar Thakur, Mohan Patel, Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development.
  5. Shabir Ahmad Padder, Climate Change-Impact on Agriculture, Kurukshetra. 
 

Merits and Limitations of Cotton Fiber Length Measuring Instruments (Part-1)

Merits and Limitations of Cotton Fiber Length Measuring Instruments (Part-1)
N.Balasubramanian
Retd Jt. Director (BTRA) and Consultant
I, Rajeswari, 36, 17th Road, Chembur, Mumbai 400071, 9869716298
Email: balajamuna@gmail.com




Abstract
Baer sorter is the most accurate instrument for measuring short fibre content but is time consuming and requires operator training. HVI fibrograph though much faster suffers from 1overestimationdue to scanning some distance from clamping point 2. Underestimation as sampling in the clamped beard is not truly length biased and 3 highly unreliable in estimating short fibre content. AFIS is also rapid in measuring fibre length but suffers from fibre breakages during opening. Further fibres are not fully straightened during measurement. Almeter has the merit of giving both frequency distribution and cumulative frequency distribution but short fibres are not fully gripped and move to the centre. Image analyses is more accurate but is time consuming. Considerable divergence is found between the results of various authors about the level of agreement between the results of different length measuring instruments.

Introduction:
Fibre length is one of the most important quality of cotton contributing to higher yarn strength spinnability and reduced end breakages in spinning. Short fibre content has pronounced effect on waste, yarn irregularity, appearance and end breakages Conventional and HVI instruments used for testing fibre length parameters of cottons are briefly reviewed here. Merits and limitations of these instruments, precautions to be taken and the agreement between the results of these instruments are discussed based on research conducted over the years.

Oil plate method
Fibre straightened by liquid paraffin on a glass plate is measured for length by a scale. Merits – Accurate measurement Limitation – Laborious and time consuming. 

Balls Sorter
Determines frequency length distribution of fibres from which mean, CV are estimated. Fibres are laid as per their length on a plush table by a moving carriage and fibres falling in different length groups are weighed to give weight length distribution (f(l)). Time consuming and is not commonly used. 

Baer Sorter
The fibres are fractionated into different length groups by a set of parallel combs and top comb and uniform array of fibres is prepared in descending order of length to get cumulative fibre length distribution . Effective length, Mean length, Upper quarter length and % short fibres are determined. Suter web sorter is a similar American instrument where tufts are weighed instead of being laid on a plush board to prepare a diagram. ASTM Standard D 1447-07, details the Standard Test Method for Length and Length Distribution of Cotton Fibers (Array Method). Cumulative frequency by Baer sorter is q(l) and is related to frequency f(l) of fibres by (balls sorter)
 Merits- 
  1. Effective length is close to Grader's staple length  
  2. Provides accurate estimate of short fibre content
Limitations- 
  1. Time consuming (about 2 hrs per sample)  
  2. Requires considerable operator skill.
Shirley Photo Electric Stapler
Light is made to fall on a moving tuft of fibres aligned at one end and the reflected light is made to fall on two photo cells. Distance between two maximum gradient points in the current generated in the two photo cells , as the tuft moved on a traversing tape gives staple length.

Peyer Almeter
Fibroliner prepares a beard of aligned fibres held in the needle field of a transfer equipment. The clamped beard is passed between two capacitance plates and the change in capacitance is measured. Both cumulative and histogram of length frequency curve are shown in a printer. Time taken for measurement of length is about 15- 20 min. ASTM D5332- 92 stipulates test method of measuring length by Almeter. Limitation – Finite gauge of Fibroliner does not allow full gripping of short fibres. Fibroliner allows short fibres to move to the centre of beard instead of staying at the aligned end1.

Fibrograph
Beard of fibres is prepared by picking the fibres randomly from the sample by a comb and loose fibres brushed aside. The beard is optically scanned from the base to tip from which a fibrogram is drawn. The comb has28 needles/inch. Since long fibres have a proportionally higher probability to be caught by comb this results in a length biased sample. The instrument based on this principle was developed by Hertel2. Upper half mean length, mean length and Uniformity index are determined from the fibrogram by drawing tangents to the curve2. ASTM D1447 - 07(2012)e1 gives the Standard Test Method for Length and Length Uniformity of Cotton Fibers by instruments like Fibrograph. Mechanisation of measurement of length in the instrument resulted in servo fibrograph where fibrogram is drawn automatically. Manual models could also be converted to servo automatic model by this conversion3. Time required per test is reduced from 7.5 min to 4 min and operator fatigue reduced. Further improvements were suggested by Tallant to improve accuracy in trace and higher operator speed4. Rouse used 2 dial gauges to determine relative length of fibres and number of fibres in a fibrogram instead of drawing the fibrogram5 for improving accuracy. Ewald and Worley6 developed modifications to enable same fibrograph instrument to work as manual, an automatic curve drawing or an automatic dial or digital type. Hertel and Craven7 introduced the concept of span length measurements which led to Digital fibrograph. Digital counters with push button systems were used in place of dial gauges and the entire operation of length measurement is atomised. 2.5%, 50% span length, uniformity index and short fibre%, short fibre content(SFL) and Floating fibre index are determined in digital fibrograph. Fibro sampler is used in later models to clamp the fibres on the comb. Fibre sample is put inside the cylinder of sampler. Fibre comb, with 13 needles/inch, is rotated around the fibro sampler, with pressure applied on the cotton, during which it picks up fibres projecting from the holes of sampler. Time taken for measurement is reduced to 1 min per sample with reproducibility of .1 to .18 %.

Merits
  1. Simulates beard formed by fibres held by back or front roller nip of a drafting system
  2. Very rapid (about 1 - 4 min per sample)
  3. Does not depend much upon operator skill.
Limitation

1. Because of fibre breakages and length involved in clamping, estimates of length are lower.

2. Holding length calculated mathematically is found to be around 4.06 mm8. Scanning starts at 3.81 mm from comb. As a result actual scanning starts at 7.87 mm from the comb because of this. The holding length also varies from cotton to cotton. Krowwicki and Ramay9 showed that 50 % span length, 2.5 % span length and Uniformity ratio in Digital Fibrograph are overestimated as scanning starts at 3.81 mm from clamping point. 50 % and 2.5 % span lengths are overestimated to the extent given below:

50% span length = 0.5 L + 1.905
2.5 % span length = 0.975 L + 0.09525

Maximum possible Uniformity Index is increased as a result from 51.28 to 57.6 for 30 mm and 51.28 to 56 for 40 mm cotton. The extent to which fibrogram is affected by scanning at 4 mm from clamp position instead of clamp is shown in Fig 1 and Table 1 below. Both 2.5% and 50 % span length are increased but the effect is more on the latter. As a result uniformity Index is increased.
Fig 1 : Comparison of Fibrograms with scanning from clamp and scanning from 4mm length
Table-1: Span lengths and uniformity ratios with scanning from clamp and scanning from 4mm length

Span Length
Scanning from Clamp (Mm)
Scanning 4mm from clamp
2.5 %
31.67 mm
32.05 mm
50 %
12.03  mm
 14.32  mm
UI %
40
44.7

3. Crimp in the fibre leads to underestimation.

4. Highly unreliable for estimating short fibre content. Precautions required in fibre sampler for getting reliable beards are discussed by Carpenter10. 1 Even pressure should be applied on the sample inside cylinder 2. The cylinder should be rotated slowly and gently 3 at least one half of perforations should be covered by sample 4 beard should be uniform without thick and thin places 5 A fresh sample surface should be used for each comb 6. Excessive brushing of beard should be avoided. Yoakum11 reported a higher fibre length with fibro sampler beards than hand prepared beards. Correlation of yarn strength with 2.5 % span length is as good as the upper quarter length of comb sorter and upper half mean of servo fibrograph. 2.5 % span length by digital fibrograph and short fibre % by comb sorter were better related to ring frame end breakage rate than uniformity ratio by servo fibrograph.

Frequency of fibres of length l, r(l), by fibrograph is a cumulative distribution of Baer sorter diagram and is given by
Relationship between span lengths and mean fibre length are critically influenced by the variability and short fibre content. 
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